Treatment of respiratory disorders injuries

In emergency and intensive care practice violations of external respiration are one of the most common pathological conditions.
The most common causes respiratory disorders are injuries to the chest and neck, brain damage, disorders of blood circulation in a small circle, various complications of the respiratory organs.
Before proceeding to the examination of causal factors respiratory disorders, stop for a brief clinical description of different forms of this type of pathology.
Acute respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which, for various reasons process is broken adequate oxygenation of the body and excretion of carbon dioxide. This explains the typical acute respiratory failure hypoxia and hypercapnia. The following types of hypoxia.
Respiratory (hypoxic, ventilation) - occurs as a result of violations of the ventilation function pneumatic ways. This kind of hypoxia most typical of foreign bodies of the respiratory tract, aspiration of blood and vomit, the retraction of the language in anaesthesia, the laryngo - and bronchospasm. Similar phenomena can be observed in abscesses of the pharynx and larynx, pneumonia and pulmonary edema, i.e., in all cases, when mechanically removed from gas exchange in higher or lower part of the device of external respiration.
Anemia is caused by lack of transportation of oxygen to organs and tissues due to decrease volume of circulating blood (erythrocytes). It is typical of acute blood loss and uncompensated posthemorrhagic States.
Circulatory - develops as a result of hemodynamic disturbances associated with the centralization of blood circulation and the lack of peripheral blood circulation and microcirculation. Circulatory hypoxia most typical for different types of shock, collapse, terminal conditions, acute blood loss.
Gistologicescoe (tissue) - the "poisoning" cell poisons that prevent the absorption of oxygen, or capture and transfer its red blood cells.
Central-toxic - develops when oppression respiratory centre analgesics, barbiturates, anesthetics and opiates.
Clinical hypoxia may manifest agitation, headache, increased respiration and heartbeat, increased blood pressure. In Severe hypoxia occurs confusion or loss of consciousness, appear cramps, blood pressure goes down. Cyanosis is late and not a permanent sign of hypoxia. So, for example, with anemia he may not be observed. More often cyanosis appears when you decrease the saturation of blood with oxygen up to 88% and below, and fat people - up to 85%.
Hypercapnia also has its characteristic clinical features. For her typical agitation, hyperemia skin, increased sweating, arterial hypertension, tachycardia, shortness of breath, reinforced bronchial secretion. When severe hypercapnia consciousness of the patient becomes confused or lost. Appear cyanosis, excessive sweating, hypotension.
In clinical practice hypoxia and hypercapnia appear almost simultaneously and give a General picture of acute respiratory failure.
Means of emergency and intensive care in acute respiratory failure is more radical elimination of the reasons that caused it: In cases where treatment for any reason be ineffective, it is necessary to resort to a compensatory measure - long artificial (managed) lung ventilation.
In the absence of timely and sufficient care acute respiratory failure may complete a full stop breathing (apnea).
Clinic of respiratory failure does not require special decryption, as it is obvious. The only consider it necessary to warn against the loss of time figuring out "completeness" stop breathing. That unnecessary thoroughness of the examination may be fatal for the patient. Remember that visually immeasurable respiratory excursions chest, it can be concluded stopped breathing and require immediate fixed-term treatment measures - carrying out of artificial lung ventilation.