Lecithins

Lecithins (holinopozitivei) - complex esters of glycerol phosphate and fatty (oleic, palmitic and stearic) acids. Lecithins contained in the tissues with highly intensive exchange: in the matter of the brain, liver, kidney, heart muscle and other Lecithins facilitate the transport of neutral fats, counteract excessive deposits of cholesterol in the blood vessels. Lecithins have a favorable effect on the metabolism, especially the growing organism, improves the growth of bone tissue, has a therapeutic effect with symptoms of exhaustion of the nervous system, anemia, General exhaustion, vascular hypotension, liver cirrhosis. Released under the name "lecithin-cerebral" (Lecithinum-cerebro) tablets 0.1 g Appoint 1-2 tablets 3 times a day. Lecithin along with phosphorus, and iron salts of calcium included in the preparation of foren (see)appointed for the same reasons. Lecithins stored in a place protected from light.

Lecithins connection, related to lipids, but they can be seen as derivative of triglycerides (neutral fats), in which one of the remnants of the molecules of fatty acids substituted phosphate ester of choline. Of the two remaining in the molecule of lecithin fatty acids one (R) busy (or stearic palmitic), and the other (R') - unsaturated (oleic, linoleic or arachidonic). Depending on the provisions replaced fatty acids there are alpha - and beta-lecithins.
Lecithins white, waxy substance soluble in methanol and ethyl alcohols, ether and chloroform (but not in acetone), insoluble in water, but readily form emulsions. Lecithins widely distributed in the body of all animals in significant numbers are contained in the brain and spinal cord, liver, kidney and heart muscle. In the cells they are permanent components as the outer membranes and membrane subcellular structures, and to a large extent determine the membranes permeability for different substances. In blood lecithins are in erythrocytes and plasma, with most of L. in the plasma is associated with proteins and is part of lipoprotein (see).
Currency HP is accomplished mainly as triglycerides. In the intestines, they are split in different lecithinase, secretiruemy pancreas. Lecithinase And it molecule unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in lysolecithin. Lysolecithin has a pronounced hemolytic action, but immediately split further with the participation of lecithinase In that chip off a molecule of saturated fatty acid with the formation of glycerylphosphorylcholine, which then under the action of phosphatases splits into glycerol and phosphorylcholine. In the intestines are also enzymes, originally chip off from HP choline, forming phosphatidic acid, able thin emulsion able to absorb without further break down. The resynthesis HP from its breakdown products in the intestine is already partially in the wall of the intestine, and then in the liver and other organs, and this process occurs mainly in the mitochondria of cells. The rate of synthesis of L. in the brain (as in other bodies) depends on its functional state: when braking this synthesis is markedly reduced, at excitation is increased.
Synthesis intensity of lecithins in the liver plays a very important role in fat metabolism (see): HP much faster leave the liver than neutral fats and are the best carriers of fatty acids between liver, organs and fat depot. Therefore at an insufficient formation of L. in the liver, for example due to lack of choline in food is easily called fatty liver. Cm. also Phosphatides.
Lecithin as the drug is used in diseases of the nervous system, the General breakdown, anemia and vascular hypotension, as well as some chronic skin lesions, some forms of childhood eczema and other
In the medical practice lecithin (Lecithinum), lecithin-cerebral (Lecitliinum-cerebro) and lipocerin (Lipoce-rebrinum). Receive these drugs extraction from the liver and brain of cattle. Lecithin and lecithin-cerebral produced in the form of pills (0.1 g letitina in one piece); daily dose of 3-6 drops. Lipocerin available in tablets (0.5 g) in ampoule (suspended water lipid substances, 1 ml) for intramuscular injection; daily dose of 3 x 1-2 tablets or 1 ml of suspension. Keep in a dry, protected from light.