"Ice anatomy

In winter 1835 Pies arrived in St. Petersburg. It claimed the title of Professor of surgery of the University of Derpt.
"Professor of surgery and the theoretical and operational, and clinical. One, the other not," he wrote.
In anticipation of a prolonged destination Pies works as usual: from morning to night. Visit the Metropolitan hospitals, conducts operations and lectures on the surgical anatomy of the subject, hitherto unknown.
Students gathered in the evenings in the small morgue Obukhovsky hospital. It was stuffy, nesvita burning tallow candles, and a young Professor taught them what they had ever heard of, and in foreign universities.
"I day manufactured drugs commonly in several corpses, " recalled these lectures Pies, is demonstrated to them the position of parts of some area and then did another corpse of all the operations made in this area, with the required surgical anatomy of the rules. This visual way especially interested listeners.
In pokoinickaya Obukhovsky hospital came not only the students, but also those who taught others. Listened with interested Pirogov life-surgeon of his Majesty Arendt, state councillor and holder of many awards - Prussian red eagle II degree, with the star, the French Legion of Honor, Swedish Vases of I degree, Philip of Hesse Great and the Persian Lion and Sun of I degree. It was called to the mortally wounded Pushkin. Here were known Professor of the Medical surgical Academy I. Spassky and X. Salomon.
For trial lectures in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Pies chose the theme of plastic surgery. And he remains faithful to his visual method of presentation. To show progress in plastic recovery nose, he bought at the hairdresser's mannequin from papier-mache, cut off his nose, his forehead was covered with a piece of old boots. Deftly and sporo take the rubber nose, sewed it on their proper nature and, having caught in the hall whisper of mistrust, said:
All I said is based on observation and experience, and therefore there is an indisputable fact!
The medical world even knew neither the name of Professor Pirogov, nor his surgical anatomy.
Shortly after it was published - "Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascias". This work brought the scholar European fame and the first prize from the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The word "fascia" unfamiliar to you. What does it mean?
This dense fibrous shell, in which, as in the cases, dressed vessels, nerves and especially the muscles. Fascia share certain muscle groups, serve as a natural border between them. They are closely related with the location of the blood vessels.
To Pirogov this area anatomy knew little. He became interested in bands already in the first independent work on the ligation of vessels. Than they attracted his attention?
Pirogov saw in the fascia kind of benchmarks, set by nature throughout the depth of the human body. He carefully studied their direction, created the theory of fascia and, in fact, opened a new anatomical law.
Practical surgery has received reliable clue that helped to navigate the maze of the human body.
Pirogov was proving the necessity of studying of the body and in layers. But how to do it? Ordinary way of preparation for this purpose was not good. Anatomist had to delete a lot of connective tissue, which kept the internal organs. The result was broken picture of their mutual spatial location. Figure wrong with this nature represented muscles, veins, nerves more distant from each other and from the arteries than it really was. Did the unthinkable: the knife experimenter, rather than seeking the truth, distorted it.
Pirogov was able to overcome this obstacle. His biographers tell us that on an ingenious solution to the problem put his case. Passing on Sennaya square, he drew attention to the frozen and severed cow's carcass, exhibited for sale. Their views and submitted to Pirogov thought to be used for layer-by-layer anatomy frozen corpses.
Had to create a saw special design and long hours to freeze in the cold room, choosing the correct cutting type. "Ice" method gave wonderful results - there was no need to fear that the air enters the opened cavity that it will shrink some parts that will be the cause of the collapse of others.
About ten years Pirogov created his "ice anatomy, your "Atlas of cuts". He has made them more thousand. These cuts were the basis for the new topographic anatomy, telling about the true spatial location of the bodies, their attitude to blood vessels and nerves.
Scientist complicate their task. In various internal cavity he was injected fluid to see if the cuts are possible degree of displacement of the prisoners in their bodies. He was frozen corpses in various positions with limbs that bent, then straightened, then laid back, forward, to the side.
Subsequent cuts gave valuable information about the dynamics of the authorities.
What new could give anatomy after so many years of detailed study? It seems that people knew all about location, form, communications agencies. But it Pirogov proved that in our body there are no empty, filled with air space, with the exception of a few cavities, nose, throat, respiratory and intestinal channels.
Our compatriot has created a new, more perfect anatomy than its predecessors, and all this wealth he gave at the service of surgery.