Leeches

Leech - class annelids. Most leeches are the companions of fresh water. By way of eating, blood-sucking parasites or predators. Most common are medical leech, horse and linekona leech (Fig. 13-17).medical leeches

Leech: Fig. 13 - pharmacy; Fig. 14-treatment; Fig. 15 - Persian. Fig. 16. Horse-leech. Fig. 17. Linekona leech. (Left - kind leeches with dorsal side, right side - the view from the ventral side.)


Medical leeches has long been used as krovoisliania and anticoagulation tool. They inhabit shallow, well warmed by the sun, the waters of the Caucasus; feed on the blood of cattle. Medical leeches are bred on the Biofactory in Moscow.
Horse P. attack animals and people when bathing. Dangerous because small young leeches can stick in my nose, mouth, larynx, trachea, esophagus and cause difficulty breathing, swallowing; attempts to remove P. instrumental usually unsuccessful, often end throat bleeding. Surgical intervention is needed.
The therapeutic use of leeches (leeching) based on the ability of leeches to allocate hirudin, which reduces blood clotting, has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. Leeches are widely used for a number of diseases: hypertension, thrombophlebitis, glaucoma, etc. using leeches on 4-6 pieces (rarely up to 20), repeat if necessary occupational therapy in 5-6 days. Put P. along the damaged vessel throm, on the mastoid process and to neck with hypertension, in the area of the liver - in case of insufficiency of blood circulation, the area of the heart in angina. Skin pre-washed with hot water without the use of odorous substances (soap, ether) and wipe with cotton wool. During the procedure, the patient should lie. Leeches are placed in a test tube or Cup, which tightly put to the skin, and wait until P. will stick. If leech long sticks, it needs to be replaced. Each leech over 1/3-1 hour nakazyvaet 10-15 ml of blood. If leech not eliminates, or it should be removed before touching the head end of leeches swab moistened with alcohol. After deciduation of police into the wounds put a sterile dressing. Wounds are bleeding from 6 to 24 hours, sometimes longer. If the bleeding is too abundantly and long-term, apply a pressure bandage; in threatening bleeding that is usually associated with low blood coagulation of the blood of the patient is required hemostatic means; in rare cases, impose brackets. Used leeches to the re-use of unsuitable. Contraindicated leeches when hypotension, anemia, exhaustion, diseases that are characterised by decreased blood coagulation, hemolysis.

Leeches (Hirudinea) - class predominantly freshwater animals from subtype annelids, characterized by false for and by the presence of two suction cups on both ends of the body. Most leeches are parasites-lice. Therapeutic
the representative of the order of the jaw P. - medical P. (Hirudo medicinalis). Medical P. lives in fresh water in Europe and Asia, 8-12 cm, weight depends on the blood supply. There are three types differing in color and pattern (printing. Fig. 1-3). A large part of the body cavity is digestive system; Zheludkova intestine, equipped with a pair of lateral processes, is used to Deposit nasosnoj blood. Hungry P. weighing about 2 g may one blood sucking take 10-15 ml of blood. Breathing through the skin; a hermaphrodite. Fertilized P. fall on the banks of water bodies lay cocoons - spongy yellowish-brown oval formations. Of them through the month are young individuals. Development without turning. Medical P. bred in the laboratory.
The therapeutic use of leeches (hirudotherapy, gellateria) based on the ability P. to have on the human body diverse effects: krovoisliania, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and local antikoagulyaie. The mechanism of action of medicinal leeches are not well understood, however, hirudotherapy is widely used to treat hypertension and thrombophlebitis, stenocardia and myocardial infarction, congestive liver, diseases of female genital sphere, neuritis and radiculitis, appendicular infiltrates, abrasions, glaucoma and other Contraindicated P. the collapse, hypotension, anemia, bleeding, and General exhaustion. Apply P. 4-12 pieces (rarely up to 20), repeating, if necessary, hirudotherapy in 5-6 days. Put P. on the area of the body that want to influence: along the damaged vessel throm, on the mastoid process and to neck with hypertension, liver area with its stagnation, in the region of the heart in angina, etc. Skin pre-wipe spirit, washed with hot water without the use of odorous substances (soap, ether) and wipe with a dry cotton wool. P. placed in a glass or a test tube, which tightly put to the skin, and wait, when it will stick (Fig). Each of P. for 1/2-1 hours nakazyvaet 10-15 ml of blood. If leeches long no longer need to sprinkle it with salt or touch the head end of an alcohol swab. After deciduation of police into the wounds put a sterile dressing. Wounds can continue to bleed from 6 to 24 hours. If it is bleeding profusely and long-term, apply a pressure bandage; in threatening bleeding wound sutured or impose on it a brace. Used P. re-application is not suitable.

Prestavlenie leeches: 1 - out Cup; 2 - from a test tube.

leech
Fig. 1 - 3. Types of medical leeches. The view from the back (left) and abdomen (right) side. Fig. 1. Drugstore medical leech. Fig. 2. Medical leech. Fig. 3. Persian medical leech. Fig. 4. Horse-leech. The view from the back (left) and abdomen (right) side. Fig. 5. Cocoon leech life-size: as a whole; b - in the longitudinal section; - cross section. Fig. 6. Linekona leech from the spinal (left) and abdomen (right) side.