The effect of drugs on the body

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Semi-synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins (betalaktamov) - the most effective and least toxic antibiotics. Penicillinaseproducing penicillin - methicillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin - in different dosage forms are the basic means of struggle against drug-resistant staph infection. On the degree of efficiency they are superior to other drugs. A semisynthetic broad-spectrum penicillins - ampicillin, ampioks, carbenicillin - operate bactericidal for most pathogens of purulent infections, including those resistant to other drugs. Their use is also shown in severe gram-negative infections of various localization. Penicillin is still effective in the treatment of diseases caused by susceptible to it pathogens (streptococci and other gram-positive cocci), Benzylpenicillin not appoint inflammatory processes without establishing a sensitivity to it of the pathogen.
In modern antibiotics are increasingly important semisynthetic cephalosporin. From the first-generation cephalosporins is cephalexin (for the Reception inside) is mastered production, clinical trials transferred to cefalotin (for injection); in the pharmacy network available preparations tsefaloridin (CE-porins) and Cefazolin (cefzil), In most cases (except for patients allergic to penicillins) first generation cephalosporins may be replaced by a semisynthetic penicillins, especially aniccam (combination of ampicillin and oxacillin), a combination of oxacillin and carbenicillin. Serious advantages penicillins first and second generation have opened in recent years, the modern cephalosporins (third and fourth generation) - moxalactam, ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, etc. They have a wide range of antimicrobial action, good tolerability, the benefits in the kinetics of distribution in organs and tissues of the body. Some of them have prolonged action and, obviously, in the future will replace tetracyclines and aminoglycosides.
Antistaphylococcal antibiotics macrolides, lincomycin, fuzidin is applied mainly Allergy to penicillins or the allocation of resistant pathogens. In heavy infections prescribed erythromycin phosphate for injection, which efficiency is often not inferior semisynthetic penicillins. Close on the spectrum of lincomycin and fuzidin successfully applied for the treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections, including with the defeat bones and joints. Specific effects they have the infections caused by etiology anaerobes.
Among the broad-spectrum antibiotics leading place modern aminoglycosides, Gentamicin is the principal means of combating severe purulent infection, particularly caused by resistant gram-negative flora. The drug is administered intravenously, At the beginning of therapy to isolate the causative agent gentamicin combined with a semisynthetic penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin). Retains its value as an antibiotic to fight against gram-negative infection kanamycin, which is used as an anti-TB drug. Successfully passed clinical study another new aminoglycoside - sizomitsin, on the approach tobramycin. These drugs have some features of the spectrum of pharmacological parameters. Certain advantages in efficacy and tolerability have a semisynthetic antibiotic of this group - amikacin and netilmicin. In connection with the introduction of new aminoglycosides permanently limited the scope of less effective and toxic representatives of this group. The use of streptomycin valid for tuberculosis, some dangerous infections, endocarditis, caused by enterococci (in combination with penicillin). For infections of non-tubercular etiology use of streptomycin is not provided due to the wide spread of resistant him forms of pathogens and high toxicity. There is no reason to apply monomitsina, testimony to which is limited Pharmacological Committee of Ministry of health of the USSR only cutaneous leishmaniasis.