Pharmaceutical form

The medicinal form is suitable for use condition attached drugs (state of aggregation, the geometrical form). The consistency of medicinal forms divide into liquid, soft, solid and gaseous. Liquid medicinal forms include solutions, infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, mucus, emulsions, suspensions, medicine, saturation. To soft - ointments, pastes, linimenty, suppositories, plasters. To hard - powders, tablets, pills, pills, fees. To gaseous gases, aerosols. Solutions (Solutiones) is produced by the complete dissolution of solid medicinal substance or mixture between a liquid substances. Solutions must not contain suspended solids and sediment. The solvent most often use distilled water (Aqua destillata), rarely - ethyl alcohol (Spiritus aethylicus 70%, 90%), oil. Used solutions for external, internal use and for injection. Often the solutions appointed drops (eye drops). Infusions (Infusa) and heroin (Decocta) is a water extract of medicinal plants. They quickly decompose and therefore they are prepared immediately before issuing the patient and in a small amount (for 3-4 days). Liqueurs (Tincturae) - liquid, transparent, more or less colored alcohol, spirtovanny or spitefire extraction of medicinal substances from plant material. Extracts (Extracta) - concentrated extracts of vegetable raw material; the consistency distinguish liquid, dense (water not more than 25%) and dry (moisture not more than 5%). For extraction apply water, spirit, rarely ether and others solvents. Mucus (Mucilagines) - dispersed systems, where tiny particles suspended in a liquid; have the ability to cover with a thin layer of tissue and thus protect them from exposure to various stimuli. Mucus is often used along with annoying medicinal substances. Medicine (Mixturae) is obtained when mixed in water, alcohol, and other solvents several medicinal substances. They may be clear, cloudy and even with sediment, before use, they should shake. Saturation (Saturationes) - rich gas liquids. To medicinal forms for injections are sterile solutions, emulsions, suspensions and powders and tablets that dissolve before the introduction. Ointment (Unguenta) - medicinal forms with a soft texture, intended for outdoor use. Ointments produced by mixing different drugs (basis) with forming substances (constituens), called ointment bases. As mazevyh bases used oil refining products (vaseline, paraffin and others), animal fats and vegetable oils. Paste (Pastae) - a form of ointments with the content of powder substances not less than 25% (similar in consistency to the test), so they have a good absorbent and drying properties. Liniments, or liquid ointment (Linimenta),- homogeneous mixture in the form of dense fluids or a gelatinous mass, melting at body temperature. As bases liniments yspolzuyut vegetable oils and animal fats. Suppositories (Suppositoria) is dosed soft medicinal form. At room temperature, they have a firm texture, at body temperature melted. There are rectal suppositories (candles), vaginal and sticks. The most appropriate basis for suppozitoriev is the oil of cocoa. Powders (Pulveres) - solid dosage form for internal and external application that has the property of flowability. Powders are distinguished: 1) simple - consisting of one substance; 2) complex - consisting of several medicines; 3) divided into individual doses and 4) undivided. Capsules medical (Capsulae medicinales) is a wrapper for powdery or liquid medicine used inside. They are starch (wafers), gelatin and glutony. Pills (Tabulettae) is the solid convenient medicinal form received the factory by. They are stored for a long time, mask the unpleasant taste of many medicinal substances. Tablets can be covered with shells (Tabulettae obductae) from wheat flour, starch, sugar and other Pills (Pilulae) - solid dosage form for internal use in the form of balls, made of homogeneous plastic mass and medicinal substances. Pills (Dragee) - solid dosage form for internal use in the form of balls produced by the capacity of medicinal substances on sugar granules. Charges of drug (Species), or teas complex is a mixture of dried, coarsely shredded parts of vegetative medicinal raw material, sometimes mixed with other substances (salts, essential oils). Apply them topically (poultices) and inside (tinctures, decoctions).

The medicinal form, convenient for reception and use of state attached drugs (geometric shape, state of aggregation).
There are several systems of classification of medicinal forms, based on different principles. The oldest and least advanced classification in the aggregate state - divides dosage form into 4 groups: firm, liquid, soft, gaseous. To solid L. f. include powders (Pulveres)tablets (Tabulettae), pills (Pilulae), bean (Dragee), fees (Species), capsules (Capsulae); to soft - ointment (Unguenta), paste (Pastae), patch (Emplastra), candles (Suppositoria), balls (Globuli), sticks (Bacilli); liquid - solutions (Solutiones), suspension(Suspensiones), emulsions (Emulsa), saturation (Saturationes), infusions (Infusa), decoctions (Decocta), mucus (Mucilagines), liniments (Linimenta); gas - gases, aerosols. The distribution of L. f. these groups has different authors are not the same. This classification is only convenient for primary division L. f. State of aggregation defines speed of action of medications (liquid medicines act faster than solid); with state of aggregation is also the possibility of medicine of one or the other. However, the aggregate state says little about the technological processes used in obtaining this or that L. f.
More perfect is the classification based on a way of application of medicines. According to this classification medicinal forms divide into two groups: enteral entered via the gastrointestinal tract, and parenteral entered apart from the gastrointestinal tract. To enteral L. f. are medications that are entered: 1) oral method (per os), which includes the largest group of L. f.- liquid (solutions, suspensions, emulsions, infusions, decoctions, mucus), soft (pills), solid (powders, tablets, drops); 2) rectal (per rectum) candles. To parenteral L. f. are medicines used: 1) on the skin (ointment, pastes, liniments, powders); 2) the mucous membranes (ointments, powders, solutions, balls, sticks); 3) sublingual tablets (); 4) by inhalation (gases, aerosols); 5) by injection. Depending on a way of application of medicinal forms have special names. For example, some liquid L. f. called the medicine, rinse, wash, wrap, washing, injections, drops, etc., powders - - powders, etc. This classification is primarily medical importance, as the decision on the choice of the way of drug administration, the doctor will take into account a range of circumstances and above all the condition of the patient. The strength and speed of action of the drug also depend on the way of his introduction.
From a pharmaceutical point of view is more important dispersologicheskaja classification, according to which all medications are considered as physical-chemical systems have some kind of internal structure and requiring for its establishment, the certain sequence of technological operations, i.e. the General scheme of the technological process. Modern dispersologicheskaja classification distinguishes between two main groups: 1) svobodnodispersnye system; 2) bonded dispersed systems. The former include unstructured systems in which the particles a disperse phase are not connected with each other in one continuous grid and move freely in the dispersive environment under influence of thermal movement or a gravity. Depending on the properties of the dispersion medium distinguish the following svobodnodispersnye system: 1) with the liquid dispersive environment (a solution, sols, suspensions, emulsions, hybrid systems, which refers to medicine, drops, lotions, rinse and others); 2) with gaseous medium (gas mixtures, aerosols). The essence of technological processes is reduced to the dissolution, peptization, suspendirovanija and emulsification.
In bonded dispersed systems of particles are related to each other at the expense of molecular forces and form in the dispersive environment original grid, or frames. Depending on the dispersive environment and its connection with the phase L. f. this group can be divided into the following systems: 1) bonded dispersed with viscous or solid medium (ointments, pastes, suppositories, sticks); 2) frozen, or recrystallized (pencils); 3) highly concentrated (pills, boles); 4) bonded dispersed with gaseous medium (fine-dispersed powders, tablets, granules). The essence of technological processes during production of the drugs of this group is to disperse phase and its uniform distribution and create a structured system.
To medicinal forms have a number of requirements: according to the physical-chemical properties of their component substances, stability, speed and completeness of therapeutic action, accuracy batching of medicinal substances, ease of administration, simplicity and speed of manufacturing and other Than large virtues L. f., the longer it persists in practice. Some L. f., widely used mainly in the last century could not withstand the test of time: Ulay (Julepia) - a mixture of medicinal substances sugar solution in fragrant waters, the leafs (Lamellae) - jelly-like plates of gelatin, glycerin and medicinal substances, clover (Electuaria) - mixtures of powders and extracts of honey or syrup and other

In recent years, widespread, especially abroad, received new medicinal forms. Stable and convenient for transportation flavored dry suspensions" and "dry emulsion" is a dry mixture of powders of medicinal, corrective and emulsifying or suspendarea substances (suspendirovanie or emulsification their produce directly to the reception). In this form, let go of many antibiotics, hormones, vitamins. Great attention is paid to creating L. f. with the set properties, i.e., with a particular therapeutic orientation. Such L. f. include spansuly - granules, coated different shells, which can dissolve (decay) in your environment and in specified time. Many classical L. f. replaced by intense and fast-acting inhalation L. f., first of all aerosols (suspended solid and liquid particles in the gas medium)used with asthma.
Action medicinal substances to a significant degree depends on the dosage form. So, atropine sulphate, entered into a powder, absorbed after 20-30 minutes, in the form of pills - 30-40 minutes, and when injection is after 1-3 minutes Insulin completely destroyed proteolytic enzymes, so you cannot assign in oral L. f. Choosing the right shape, thus, provides the best action of medicinal substance, and failure can reduce it, and sometimes even harm the patient. Thus of great importance preparation methods L. f. For example, using the same form of various auxiliary substances, it is possible to get drugs with different strengths and sometimes different course of action. Introduction to L. f. insignificant quantities of surface active substances contributing to a sharp increase of absorption, and hence the power of action of medicinal substances. The opposite effect - getting inactive form - giving, for example, replacement of lard vaseline in the ointment with potassium iodide, which can manifest only after absorption ointment.
Until recently, most L. f. produced in pharmacies ex tempore. At present it was possible to manufacture L. f. according to the approved standard writings - the so-called ready L. f. Implementation in the medical practice is ready L. f. increased the quality of medicines, reduced their production, dramatically unloaded pharmacies and accelerated receiving medication by patients. Now in pharmacies prepare only drug for the individual formulations, as well as unstable L. f. (tinctures, decoctions, mucus, emulsin, pills).
When selecting a dosage forms should be guided by the physical and chemical properties medicinal substance, the degree of its stability, condition and age of the patient, the possibility of applying the medicine depending on the surrounding patient conditions and other Solutions, for example, well-dosed and accepted, but many medicinal substances dissolved unstable during storage; in addition, solutions uncomfortable in the conditions of a camp situation. Infusions, decoctions, mucus, emulsions unstable, and therefore prescribed amount shall not exceed three-day needs (in case of storage in a cool place). Powders, tablets are dosed rather than solutions, but is not recommended in patients with a severe inflammatory or ulcer processes in the gastrointestinal tract, with violation of the act of swallowing, patients unconscious young children. For children preferred liquid L. f. Suffering from chronic diseases, it is expedient to prescribe medicines in the form of tablets, pills, pills that are convenient to carry and take in all conditions. When prescription drugs inside it is necessary to care about improving their taste. Patients are reacting negatively to oral dosage form shown rectal administration of drugs, excluding such side effects as nausea, vomiting and other