Leprosy)

Leprosy (synonym leprosy) - malacanthidae chronic infectious disease that affects the skin and visible mucous membranes, peripheral nervous system and internal organs.
Leprosy is found in all parts of the world; in the USSR - mainly in Middle Asia, in the Astrakhan region, the Caucasus, the far East and in the Baltic States. The disease causes acid-resistant Mycobacterium very similar to tuberculosis. Infection occurs through the skin or mucous membrane of the nose with prolonged contact with patients. The most susceptible children. The incubation period of several years. The disease continues for many years, sometimes severely compounded.

leprosy
Fig. 6. Undifferentiated leprosy.
Fig. 7. Lepametsa leprosy.
Fig. 8. Tuberkuleznaja leprosy.

There are three types of leprosy. When lepromatosis type of leprosy (Fig. 7) mainly on the skin of limbs and the face appear reddish-brown spots without clear boundaries, infiltrates, bumps and units with oily surface; fall eyebrows and eyelashes, thicken the ear lobe, deformed nose; on the mucous membrane of the mouth and nose arise ulcers, the husky voice becomes develop shortness of breath, neuritis, visual disturbances to blindness, enlarged lymph nodes. The liver and spleen, often enlarged, firm, painless; in severe cases affects the testes and epididymis; in phalangeal bone formed leprosy (see Granuloma), long - osteoporotic (inflammatory process in the bone, exciting the periosteum).
When tuberculinum type of leprosy (Fig. 8) on red or pale patches or plaques no surface sensitivity of the skin and sweating, fall out hair, atrophy of the skin, often affects nerve trunks.
When undifferentiated leprosy (Fig. 6) spots are often a circle, dry, do not have a superficial sensitivity. Nerve trunks (elbow, peroneal and others) thickened, painful; in the lesions disappear sensitivity, develop atrophy, contractures, trophic ulcers on the soles, logiterm (Nesmachniy century), dissolve the bones of the limbs.
Recognition of leprosy is important indication of living in an endemic area, the presence of relatives, patients with leprosy. If you suspect the disease of leprosy must see the whole skin, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, explore scraping mucous membrane of nasal septum and tissue juice from skin rashes (acid-fast bacilli are easily found only when lepromatosis type); with a sharp needles, tubes hot and cold water to establish the existence of anaesthetic on rashes and in the distal extremities.
Forecast serious: launched the disease leads to blindness and severe disability and sometimes death. Leprosy is curable, especially when started early therapy, but the leprosy treatment continues for many years.
Treatment sulfonic and other drugs is carried out at the instruction of the specialists of leprologia. If you suspect a leprosy patient should be referred immediately to a dermatologist. Infectious cases necessarily refer to the leper colony (closed medical institutions of the type of agricultural colonies), where they carry out the treatment. After the disappearance of the bacilli patients will be discharged for outpatient treatment at the place of residence. Cases which were transferred to outpatient treatment, are not dangerous to others. A very important fight against liopropoma.
Prevention: all family members and people in contact with him, undergo periodic medical examinations. In areas of the greatest distribution of leprosy honey. certification is mandatory for all residents.