Forest school

Forest schools (sanatorium-country boarding school) - children's institution in the system of the Ministry of education of the USSR, designed for education and rehabilitation of children of school age (mainly pupils of 1-8 grades), having deviations in health status.
In a forest school going children with closed forms of TB, patients with rheumatism in the interictal period. Selection of children in a forest school conducts a medical Commission.
The main task of the forest school is to combine study of children with health promotion through the use of natural factors of nature (fresh air, the sun) and hygienically proper routine and diet. Educational work with children is carried out by the programs of secondary schools. School lessons are based on whole-class (class 20 - 25 students), duration 40 minutes, changes between lessons 10 minutes, big change (30-60 minutes) is used for the second Breakfast and walk. The day provides rational distribution of training, rest, exercise, sports and activities for the development of labour skills. A large Wellness is having a day and a night 's sleep in the open air on the veranda: in sleeping bags at a temperature of 5 degrees to -15, at a lower temperature children will also cover cotton duvets. Period of stay of children in forest school at least 4 months. Forest school is available at 100 - 150 children. For forest school select the land plot of 3 - 4 in the suburban area with lots of greenery, preferably with the presence of coniferous trees, near the flowing waters. On the plot there are three zones: sports training, recreational and economic.
In the first zone provides classes with area not less than 2 m2 on 1 student, veranda for outdoor activities based 1.75 m2 on 1 student, library area not less than 30 m2, a sports hall at the rate of 5 m2 on each pupil to practice medical corrective gymnastics; pedagogical and methodical rooms (not less than 15 m2 each).
In health-zone there is a doctor's office (15 m2), a treatment room (15 m2), insulator (Boxing or polybox) at the rate of 1 bed for 50 people. Bedrooms (5 m2 on each pupil) not more than 6 persons. For day and night sleep outdoors provides veranda (4 m2 on a 1 student; in the immediate vicinity of the veranda is a warm room for storage of bedding), areas for the reception of solar-air baths, water treatment, bathrooms or showers, preferably with foot baths. Food in the forest school 4-5 meals a total calorie 3000 - 3500 kcal. Dining facilities usually works in one shift, per 1 student should have no less than 1.2 m2.
For children there should be premises with area of not less than 0.6 m2 on 1 student.
In the cold season the air temperature indoors should be not less than 17-18E in the bedrooms, 16-18 degrees and in classrooms, 15 - 16th in the gym, 18-20 degrees and in the shower. The economic zone are the kitchen, bath, Laundry, linen room, pantry, boiler room, apartment for staff.
Directs the school Director (teacher education); if there are more than 100 children provides for the position of Deputy Director on teaching and educational part. Along with teachers in the States sanatoria-forest schools are a doctor, nurse. All educational and health work is conducted with the direct participation of the doctor and paramedical workers.
The nurse monitors the observance of the regime, carries out the control over observance of rules of personal hygiene students, implementation of sanitary-hygienic regime at school, helps the doctor for checkups and fulfills its purpose.

Forest school (the sanatorium-country boarding school) - educational and health institution dedicated to children with tuberculosis, rheumatism and nervous children. Contingents of forest schools are equipped with special medical Commission. The period of stay in the forest school - from 2 to 4 months.
Forest school is headed by a Director-teacher, guide the educational activities laid on Deputy Director on teaching and educational part, medical service by the doctor.
In L. sh. for children, TB patients are directed to students with chronic tuberculosis intoxication II degree, tuberculosis, bronchial glands, tuberculosis of peripheral lymph nodes, with the dormant forms of osteoarticular tuberculosis (in the independent movement of the child), with the residual phenomena after pleurisy. In L. sh. for children suffering from rheumatism, students are sent not earlier than in 10-12 months. after suffering an attack of arthritis, rheumatic heart disease, when bespristupny for rheumatism ("outpatient form"), failure of the mitral valve without pronounced change of heart and in the absence of any violations from the side of cardiovascular system.
In forest schools for nerve children are sent students with persistent neurotic condition psychogenic origin, persistent asthenic conditions of different etiology; neurosis-like conditions associated with early trophic violations, toxic encephalopathy and organic lesions of the brain (the effects of head injury, meningitis, encephalitis and other) without an explicit violation of the intellect.
In each forest school abides 100-200 students aged from 7 to 14 years. Educational work is conducted according to the programs of secondary schools. For medical and recreational use of the natural factors of nature. Students receive physical education, participate in the labour process. In L. sh. set a rational mode of the day.


Training sessions in Leningrad sh. built on classroom system (class consists of 20-25 students). The class lasted 40 minutes, changes between lessons - 10 minutes, big change (30-60 minutes) is used for the second Breakfast and walk. Lessons are held in classrooms and on the verandas. Special clothes (warm jacket and trousers, hat, boots), heated hands, cover the table, manuals using local radiant heating allow to conduct lessons on the veranda with a wide access of air in the cold season, when the outdoor air temperature of up to -18 degrees. In forest school organises day and night sleep on verandas: in sleeping bags at air temperature from +5 to 15 degrees; at lower temperatures (up to - 20 degrees) children also cover cotton duvets. Food in L. W.- 4-5-fold. The caloric value of 3000 - 3500 calories. On the first Breakfast, accounting for 25% of the daily diet, the second 5 - 10%, for lunch - 35-40%. at lunch - 5-10%, dinner - 20%.
Forest schools are placed in a green massifs of suburban zones, in a wooded surroundings of settlements; land L. sh. - 2-5 hectares In area, landscaped not less than half, assign: 1) training and sports area with classes in the open air (glazed pavilions light type or canopies), sports ground, canopies for gymnastics in rainy weather, the garden; 2) health and recreational area with playgrounds for solar-air baths, water treatment, day dream in the air; 3) economic zone with a sauna, a Laundry, a boiler room, a glacier and other
Premises L. sh. (educational, bedroom, dining room and others) can be placed in one or several buildings, connected by warm transitions. Classrooms have an area of 50 m2 (at the rate of not less than 2 mg per pupil), verandas to practice in air based 1.75 mg per student; gymnasium - 5 m2 on the student Assembly hall on 1 m2 per student. Bedrooms (5 m2 ) provides for no more than 6 people. To sleep on the air discharged unheated porch adjoining the building L. sh. (4 m2 ); in the immediate vicinity of the veranda is a warm room for storage of bedding. The doctor's office (15 m2), a room for medical procedures (15 m2), insulator (2-3% of the total population of children) in the form of polobocul with separate entrance consists medical unit L. sh. In L. sh. for nervous children need to have room for hydro - and phototherapy, as well as a speech therapist's office. In the showers 1 cone accounts for 20 children, in washrooms 1 tap at 8 children, toilets 1 point to 12 children. On each floor are set aside space for cleaning clothes and shoes. Closet equipped with individual lockers, near it is arranged drying room for outer garments and footwear.
All premises forest schools highlights the direct natural light. Light factor for educational rooms and bedrooms is made of 1 : 5, verandas - 1:2, the rest of the rooms - 1:8. Artificial lighting in the classrooms, training rooms, the library, the reading room is not less than 150 Lux, gymnastic and Assembly halls - 100 Lux. In L. sh. arrange the Central exhaust ventilation. In classrooms and bedrooms providing a wide access of fresh air through transoms, sash Windows (the ratio of the area transoms to floor space of at least 1 : 30). Heating should be Central water, but Pets and stove. In the cold season the air temperature indoors should be not below 17-18 degrees and in the bedrooms, 16-18 degrees and in classrooms, 15-16 degrees and in the gym, 18-20 OC in the shower and in other areas.