Leukocytes

leucocytes
Fig. 2. Leukocytes (color Romanovsky - Giemsa): 1 - neutrophilic plasmic order has been revealed; 2 - neutrophilic metamyelocyte (young); 3 - stab neutrophils; 4 - segmented neutrophils; 5 - eosinophils; 6 - basophils; 7 - lymphocytes; 8 - monocytes; 9 - plasma cells; 10 - neutrophil with toxic grain.

Leukocytes are white (colourless) blood cells. Leucocytes - nuclear cells size 7-20 MK. Alone leukocytes rounded, but they have amoeboid movements, they can penetrate through the walls of blood vessels in and out of the blood stream. The normal concentration of cells in the blood varies from 4,000 to 5,000 up to 8000 - 9000 1 Distinguish granular leukocytes, or granulocytes (contain in the cytoplasm specific grain size), and non-granular, or agranulocyte ( Fig. 2). Depending on the nature of grain at colouring Romanovsky - Giemsa granulocytes are divided on neutrophil, eosinophil and basophilic. The neutrophilic leukocytes small grain brown-purple. Eosinophils with abundant large orange-red grain and basophilic with large dark purple different grain size. The cytoplasm of granulocytes painted in pink, the kernel of their irregular, sometimes in the form of a bent harness (stab), often divided into segments, United thin jumper (segmented). Agranulocyte (lymphocytes and monocytes) differ basophilic (blue) the cytoplasm and non-segmented kernel. Compared with the lymphocyte (see) monocyte has larger dimensions (12-20 MK), light colored kernel incorrectly (often a horseshoe shape, smoky-blue cytoplasm, sometimes with powdered red grain. When blood diseases than those listed Mature forms of cells that may appear immature forms (plasmic order has been revealed, metamyelocyte), undifferentiated and plasma cells. The latter are eccentrically located round the nucleus and blue vakuolyarnoi the cytoplasm, prisvetlaya to the kernel. Leukocytes have a number of important functions, particularly in protecting the body (see Antibodies, Phagocytosis), wound healing interstitial the exchange and other Cm. also Blood, Leukocytic formula.

Leukocytes (from the Greek. leukos - white and kytos - cell) - white blood cells, a type of blood cells. Leucocytes - rounded cells with a nucleus and homogeneous or granular protoplasm. In human blood distinguish granular leukocytes - granulocytes and non-granular HP - agranulocyte. The granulocytes include HP neutrophil, eosinophil and basophilic grain, for agranulozitos - lymphocytes (see) and monocytes. Neutrophilic HP - neutrophils - cells with a diameter of about 12 MC. Protoplasm them painted by way Romanovsky - Himsi in pink, i.e. it OxyFile, and grains - purple (neutrophilic grain). The core richly chromatin, polymorphic; in young cells bobowicko or kolbasino form (young), the other stretched out in the form of sticks, horseshoe (stab) and the most Mature divided banners into segments (segmented). Banners can sometimes be obvious that gave rise to some authors take the segments separate kernel and call these cells polinucleari, in contrast to the mononuclear - large mononuclear cells of lymphoid character with Auroville grain. Such opposition should be considered wrong, as all the blood in the entity are mononuclear cells. Now instead of "polynuclear" common name "segmented" L "Young" neutrophils in normal blood not commonly found. The emergence of them said about the regenerative shift - nuclear shift to the left (see WBC). The increase in the number of cells with segmented kernel - shift right key. In some inflammatory and infectious diseases (pneumonia, sepsis, septic processes) grain in the cytoplasm of neutrophils rougher, unequal size, unevenly turn, called toxic (toxigenic) fraction of neutrophils. This is usually observed and nuclear shift. Often simultaneously with toxic grain in the cytoplasm of neutrophils are the so-called bull Case (or rather Knyazkova - Fact) - pale blue balls of different forms. Eosinophils - eosinophils - diameter of about 12 MC. Protoplasm them poorly basophilia, turns a bluish color and grain in her well-eosin stained in bright pink. Kernel-lobed, less than neutrophil, usually consists of two segments. Basophilic leucocytes - basophils - diameter of about 8-10 MC with oxytelinae protoplasm, painted in pink. Grain major, of various sizes, painted metachromatic main colors in dark purple color. The core consists of 3-4 segments and reminds maple leaf.
Monocyte - the largest cell of the normal blood - diameter 12-20 microns. The kernel is often eccentric, oval-shaped or u-shape, has shirokolisty chromatin network, painted in red and violet. Protoplasm is painted in dark gray with bluish tint. Sometimes it is possible to note in the cytoplasm of small Auroville grain.
Physiology of cells. One of the main functions of cells - the body's defense against microbes and foreign substances penetrating into the blood or tissue (purification function, neutralization). An important property of HP - their ability amoeboid movement, particularly typical for the grainy L. and monocytes. HP have the ability to pass through the vessel wall into the surrounding connective tissue and back to the vessel. White blood cells, especially Mature neutrophils, characteristic function of phagocytosis (see) and participation in the processes of immunity. L. stimulate regeneration processes, activate the healing of wounds. L. excreted in the secret glands in the digestive tract, with products of inflammation, quickly being destroyed. The life of leukocytes small - 2-4-10 days. HP have significant secretory capacity (highlighting alexanov, bactericidal substances such as lysozyme), ieromonahami activity (education antibodies - leikozitopenia, lamaslinda), involved in the processes interstitial metabolism. HP has expressed enzymatic activity, they found various enzymes: oxidase, amylase, catalase, lipase, phosphatase. The eosinophils attributed mainly detoxification function, their number increases with allergic conditions, worms, skin diseases and decrease at altitude of infectious diseases, poisoning. Function basophils have been little studied, indicate their participation in education of heparin and histamine. Monocytes have phagocytic capacity. The accumulation of leukocytes, a phenomenon similar to settling of red blood cells (see).
Due to the complexity of defining and variability of the results definition sedimentation rate L. in clinical practice is not included.