Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis is the increase in the number of cells in the blood more than 8000 - 9000 1 mm3; giperlakotsitos - more than 40 000-50 000 1 mm3. Leukocytosis occurs as a result of strengthening leikopoaiza or from the redistribution of cells in the body. Distinguish between physiological and pathological leukocytosis. To the physiological leukocytosis refers digestive (coming after eating), muscle (after physical strain), leukocytosis infants, pregnant and leukocytosis from cooling. Pathological leukocytosis occurs as a reaction of the blood forming organs irritation caused by infectious, toxic, purulent-inflammatory, radiation and other agents. Leukocytosis is also observed in the tissue necrosis (myocardial infarction, tumor lysis), after much blood loss, injury, brain injury, and so on, leukocytosis, as a rule, the phenomenon of transient and disappears together with its cause. Temporarily coming leukocytosis with the appearance of blood immature forms referred to as Lakavitsa reaction (see), persistent similar blood picture is observed when leukaemia (see). In most cases, leukocytosis occurs the increase in the number of neutrophils - neutrophilic leucocytosis, often with a shift to the left (see WBC). Eosinophilic leukocytosis (see Eosinophilia) accompanies many of allergic conditions (asthma, serum sickness), worm infestation, itching dermatoses , and so on, Lymphocytosis (see Lymphocytes) is observed at some infections and intoxications. Monocytosis observed in septic endocarditis, malaria, measles, mumps, syphilis and other

Leukocytosis is the increase in the total number (or a separate form) of leukocytes in peripheral blood at physiological States and pathological processes.
Leukocytosis is temporary and disappears with reason, it caused. The normal number of cells in the blood is 6000-8000 1 mm3 with extreme fluctuations from 4,000 to 9,000 1 mm3. In healthy people during the day, the number of leukocytes is not constant, it varies within the physiological norm. In addition, the average error count is 7 %. The increase in the number of leukocytes to 40 000-50 000 and above are called giperlakotsitos. Leukocytes into normal unevenly distributed in the blood line of various organs and systems. Found to be significantly greater their content in the liver, spleen, and also in the Central vessels compared to the vessels of the skin. Leukocytosis may occur as a result of redistribution of cells in different vascular areas, mobilization of them from the depot (redistribution, or neurohumoral, L), during stimulation of the bone marrow pathological agents, strengthening leikopoaiza with the appearance in the blood of young forms of leukocytes (absolute, or true, L.). Can simultaneously be true, and redistribution HP Has a value of vascular tone: their expansion and slower blood flow is accompanied by accumulation of leukocytes, narrowing the reduction of their number. Distinguish between physiological and pathological leukocytosis.
Physiological L., mostly redistribution, temporal, observed in pregnancy (especially in the later stages), during delivery and in the newborn, muscle tension (in athletes, children after you cry) - myogenic L.; when a rapid transition from vertical to a horizontal position - static leucocytosis; after a cold shower or a bath. Digestive L. occur 2-3 hours after eating, especially protein; it is often preceded by radiation. In development of this kind HP have a value of conditioned-reflex reactions: L. can be observed at the mention of food, by the time of the usual food intake. To HP can cause mental arousal.
Pathological L. observed in many infectious diseases, inflammatory processes, especially meningitis, toxic effects, under the influence of ionizing radiation (very briefly), with skull injuries, concussions, haemorrhage, after operations, in shock (trauma leukocytosis). This includes toxic L. observed in poisonings arsenic, mercury, carbon monoxide, acid), tissue disintegration, necrosis due to violation of local blood circulation (gangrene of the extremities, heart attack internal organs, malignant neoplasms with decay), and L. uraemic, medicament (at reception of colloid, antipyrine), adrenaline (irritation of the sympathetic nerve). Posthemorrhagic L. occurs after heavy bleeding (irritation bone marrow decay products of blood). A high degree of L. with significant rejuvenation of leukocytes are at leukemoid reactions, especially when leukemia. For some diseases (appendicitis, lobar pneumonia, stenocardia) marked increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood taken from the skin over the affected organs,local L.
Pathological leukocytosis is often neutrophilic (neutrophilia and often accompanied by qualitative changes of neutrophils ("nuclear shift"). The severity of L. of the infection depends on its severity and the nature and reactivity of organism. Among young people the reaction of the blood-forming tissues are more pronounced, the elderly are often lacking. In addition neutrophilic L., distinguish HP-dependent increase in the number of other types of cells.
Eosinophilic leukocytosis (eosinophilia) occurs often without increasing the total number of leukocytes. Eosinophilia was observed in allergic conditions (asthma, swelling Kwinke, intolerance to drugs, such as penicillin, and so on), with worms (ascariasis, echinococcosis, trichinosis), as well as with scarlet fever, nodular the nodosa, hemorrhagic vasculitis, rheumatism, syphilis, tuberculosis, chlamydia. The emergence of eosinophilia with acute infectious diseases in the period of spadenia fever is considered as a favorable prognostic sign.
Basophilic leukocytosis is rare, such as injection of a foreign protein (vaccinations), hemophilia, hemolytic anemia, leukemia.
Noted types L. proceeding with the increase of granulocytes, can be seen as granulocytes. It can be also observed an increase in blood lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) and monocytes (monocytosis). Monocytosis is observed with the diseases (typhus, malaria, smallpox, measles, epidemic parotitis, syphilis), protozoal diseases, prolonged septic endocarditis, chronostasis.
Pathological leukocytosis has a specific diagnostic and prognostic value, in particular for the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases and various inflammatory processes, assessing its severity, reactivity of the organism, the effectiveness of therapy. This should take into account the increase in the number of cells of certain types, qualitative features of neutrophils (nuclear shift") and clinical picture of the disease in General.