The etiology and pathogenesis of leukemia

The etiology and pathogenesis remain outstanding. Noteworthy some theoretical concept about the etiology of childhood leukaemia.
Chemical theory. The organism are endogenous or penetrate from outside of matter - the so-called carcinogenic (leucosolenia) hydrocarbons. Experimental models HP be unable to play in mice by introducing them or lipid extracts from the liver of people who died from leukemia, or carcinogenic hydrocarbons (for example, 1, 2, 5, 6-dibenzanthracene, 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene, 1, 2-benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene). There are indications that the susceptibility of mice to the leukemia increases when the imbalance of hormones (after the introduction of excess hormones oestrogen, removal of the adrenal glands).
Viral theory. Introduction extracts leukemic tissue, passed through filters to Seitz, Berkefeld and candles "Sales", is one way of obtaining experimental leukemia not only of chickens, but also in mice.
For several years in different countries of the work is underway to explore the role of the virus in the development of Leningrad in humans. The result of these researches were playing experimental leukemia material obtained from the patient HP person. However, the actual side of these works is not perfect. It is unclear what you mean by "leukemia virus", if he gets into the organism from outside or is endogenous.
Recently viral particles found in blood plasma and culture of bone marrow people with leukaemia. Boenisch-Melnik (M Benish-Melnick), Smith (K. D. Smith) was subjected to ultracentrifugation blood plasma of children suffering from leukemia; electron microscope study of sediment has revealed the presence of viral particles, while in similarly prepared draft plasma of healthy children of such particles were found. Viral particles were also found in tissue culture leukemic bone marrow, and they were not in the culture of normal bone marrow. It is possible that these individual studies conducted at the highest level in compliance with the appropriate controls, and indicate the presence of viral agent in tissues of patients with leukemia, but the etiological role of this factor remains unclear. Clinical observations also do not give grounds to assume the possibility of contact transmission L. This allows you to deny the process of epidemiology L. in terms of regularities, characteristic of infectious diseases.
Theory of ionizing radiation. Several authors indicate a causal dependence of the development of Leningrad from exposure to x-rays. There are numerous cases of development of leukemia victims of the explosion of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the clinic of patients with malignant tumors, which after radiation therapy develops L. this most commonly occurs no earlier than in 2-3 years.
However, the pathogenesis of radiation leukemia remains unclear. By N. A. the Krajewski, radiation, always leading to depression of blood, is a prerequisite for the formation process of rapid proliferation. This, apparently, is the essence of the mutagenic action of radiation radiation. In chronic gipoplasticheskaya anemia in some patients after several years of onset of transformation of blood by type L. the same phenomenon was observed (M. S. Dulzin) in two patients gipoplasticheskaya anemia 3-7 years after splenectomy. Thus, not only ray radiation, but other factors may give rise to such transformation.