Acute leukemia

Acute leukemia characterized by impaired blood level reticular cells, genocidalists, myeloblasts or lymphoblasts and development of centres of pathological blood (leukemic infiltration) in the spleen, lymph nodes, liver, etc.
The disease begins long before the rapid manifestation of clinical symptoms with the appearance of a small, weak and mild pain in the bones. In the period deployed picture of the disease there is a sharp weakness, bone pain, fever with chills and profuse later, dyspnea. For no apparent reason, there are small and extensive bleeding in the skin and mucous membranes, bleeding gums, nose, uterine, intestinal bleeding and haemorrhage in the brain, which can serve as the direct cause of death. Often develop ulcerous necrotic and fungal skin and mucous membranes, especially in the mouth, the mouth and the gastrointestinal tract. The lymph nodes, spleen and liver sometimes moderately increased. Temperature high with large enterprises, but may be low grade. A characteristic picture of blood. The vast number of leukocytes presents blast cells. Intermediate forms between these cells and Mature white cells are almost completely absent. Marked progressive anemia and thrombocytopenia. The study of bone marrow punctate detects the accumulation of blast cells, as well as a sharp decrease of the elements of the red Rostock blood.
The diagnosis of acute leukemia put on the basis of clinical, research peripheral blood and bone marrow punctate.
The forecast. For acute leukemia is rapidly progressing. Due to application of modern methods of treatment may be short-lived (a few months) remission. Death occurs as a result of bleeding, leukemia intoxication and necrotic lesions and infectious complications.
Treatment should be initiated immediately upon diagnosis in a hospital means oppressive pathological blood,- 6-mercaptopurine (2.5 - 5 mg/kg / day), methotrexate (20 mg 1 time in 4-5 days), cyclophosphamide 150-200 mg / day, vincristine (0.05 mg/kg of 1 per week) in combination with corticosteroids, blood transfusions and erythrocyte mass. Patients with leukemia require a careful care and respect for bed rest. Sister spends toilet mouth, timely change of clothes, feed and water them sick.