Leukemia in children

Children are found mainly acute leukemia and rarely chronic leukemias.
The clinical picture of acute leukemia in children and adults are very similar. The peculiarity of the course of acute leukemia in children is more frequent and pronounced enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Occasionally sharp symmetrical increase tear and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) syndrome of Mikulich.
Decisive for the diagnosis of acute leukemia are changes in the white blood cells. In leukocyte formula are more or fewer of leukemic blast cells. Often noted a sharp increase in the number of lymphocytes in reality, however, with careful study they are microforms blast cells. In unclear cases for further diagnosis must be done a bone marrow puncture. In kilogramme has a high content of blast cells. With the development of the disease dramatically decreases the content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and platelets and increases the number of genocidalists.
In the period of remission normalization of peripheral blood and the reduction in the number of blast cells in kilogramme to 5% and less. Has a value and an x-ray bones which leukemia find-pattern of metamizol and education foci of destruction.
Of the more rare variants of acute leukemia in children meet tumor forms: retikulez, Chlorakas (chloroma), saralasaz.
Treatment of acute (subacute) leukemia spend in the hospital, it should be initiated immediately upon diagnosis, it should be integrated with application of steroid hormones (prednisolone, triamcinolone, dexamethasone), antimetabolites (6-MP 2.5 mg/kg per day, methotrexate 0.1 - 0.2 mg/kg / day), antibiotics in case of accession of secondary infection, blood transfusion, erythrocyte mass. Transfusion single-group erythrocyte mass on 50-150 ml 1-3 times a week when applied in a serious condition and anemia (hemoglobin below 10 g%). In the absence of erythrocyte mass may be transfused swieciany blood. Appoint vitamins And (10 000 - 20 000 ME a day), B1 and B2 (5 mg daily), With (0,05-0,2 g per day). Vitamin B6 imposed on 25-50 mg per day during 2-3 weeks. Food should be individual and valuable. Very important care for severely ill patients.
The clinical picture of chronic leukemia in children is the same as in adults. Children with compensated chronic leukemia is prescribed a tonic, and for anemia - transfusion erythrocyte mass. When intoxication, decreased hemoglobin and erythrocytes, leukocytosis (over 40 000 1 mm3), the emergence of a significant number of young forms of white apply mielosan, (0,06-0,1 mg/kg / day).