Face

Person (lat. facies, gr. prosopon) - the front part of the man's head.

The dimensions, the shape and topography of a person vary depending on the individual. Boundaries: the land of hairy cover the forehead and temples, the rear edge of the ear, the bottom edge and corner of the lower jaw.
Patterns are the ratio of the thickness of a layer of soft tissue on the surface of the facial bones. The number and severity of skin folds person increases with age.
Violations of formation of the person in the period of intrauterine development leads to congenital facial clefts. The final formation of the outlines of a person fails to 20-23 years for men and 16 to 18 years for women. As aging (40 years old) age-related changes are expressed in the loss of elasticity of the skin (wrinkles) and the changing contours of the face, that is connected first of all with tooth loss and atrophy of the alveolar process of the jaws.
Bone base persons are paired bones: the nose, tear, cheekbones, jaw, lower nasal turbinates, the Palatine and unpaired bones: the lower jaw and the opener. The lower jaw is movably articulates with the temporal bones of two temporomandibular joints. Remaining bones are strongly connected seams between themselves and with the bones of cerebral part of the skull. The earlobes and partly nose determine the cartilage.

mimic face muscles
Fig. 1. Mimic face muscles: 1 - occipital-forehead muscle (frontal abdomen); 2 - muscle corsiva eyebrows; 3-"muscle arrogant"; 4 - circular muscle; 5 - circular muscle of the mouth; 6 - muscle, lowering the angle of the mouth; 7 - chin muscle; 8 - muscle, lowering the lower lip; 9 - muscle laughter; 10 - muscle lifting the corner of his mouth; 11 - muscle lifting the upper lip; 12 - cheek muscle; 13 - nasal muscle.
topographic face
Fig. 2. Topographical areas: 1 - frontal; 2 - ophthalmic; 3 - nose; 4 - infraorbital; 5 - oral; 6 - chin; 7 - cheek; 8 - parotid-chewing; 9-Malar; 10 - the area of the ear; 11 - temporal.
congenital defects of the face
Fig. 3. Congenital defects of the face; 1-median cleft of the lower jaw; 2 - oblique facial cleft; 3 - transverse crack person; 4 - incomplete cleft upper lip; 5 - a complete cleft lip; in - full bilateral cleft upper lip, alveolar bone and the sky.

Facial muscles: chewing, which provide the movements of the lower jaw, and facial located across the surface of the facial skeleton (Fig. 1). They change the shape of the mouth, eyes, nose, collect the skin in the folds than give the face a different expression.
The facial skin is relatively thin. Coloring it depends on age, sex, race, and by changes in the blood vessels under the influence of cooling, overheating or emotions. Persistent changes in the colour of the skin can be observed in the number of pathological conditions.
The blood supply is very rich person, is carried out by the system of branches of the external carotid artery. The outflow of blood from a person occurs mainly in external and internal jugular vein; in addition, the venous network of persons reported with venous network brain of the skull.
The lymphatic system of the person very well developed, lymph flowing in regional lymph nodes are usually located on the side of the face, jaw and on the side of the neck.
Innerviruetsya face branches of the trigeminal and facial nerves.
Topographically face is divided into several areas: frontal, orbital, the nose, infraorbital, mouth, chin, cheek, near-USNO-chewing, Malar, ear and temporal (Fig. 2). Boundaries between areas are, as a rule, coincide with the boundaries of the facial bones; in addition, the boundaries are natural skin folds (furrow) face - nose, chin-lip.
Pathology. Of malformations are cleft of the face (Fig. 3), the most often - the upper lip, the so-called hare-lip.
Hemiatrophia person is a disease manifested progressive atrophy of the soft tissues (skin, fat tissue, muscle and bone formations of one half of the persons observed mostly in women. Pain no. There has been a violation of sweating on the affected side of the face. The cause of the disease is not clear, a number of authors associates it with lesions of the nervous system.
Treatment is the application of methods of reconstructive surgery and orthopedics (transplantation of adipose tissue, cartilage grafts, manufacture special dentures and other).
Hemihypertrophy persons is manifested by the increase of the muscles on one side of face or have bone changes, most of the lateral parts of the lower jaw. In most cases, the cause of the disease is not clear. Treatment - excision of excess muscle or bone.
Wounds person in connection with a copious blood supply in tissues heal well. When approaching seams or edges with strips of bandage incised wound to the face, even containing microflora, usually heals by primary intention.
Acute purulent infection of a person manifests itself most often in the form of faces (see) or boil (see). Rare is the carbuncle (see). Carbuncle and even a boil persons in the localization on the nose or upper lip creates greater risk of progression from infection of the lining of the brain. Unacceptable attempts squeezing boils person. Among chronic infections of the face of the greatest importance tuberculosis skin and maxillofacial the actinomycetes (see).
On the face often atheroma (see) and tumor - cancer of lower lip, angioma.
Cm. also , the Lips, the Nose.