Lymph

Lymph circulation is the movement of lymph through the lymphatic vessels and capillaries. The main condition ensuring the movement of lymph (see) through the lymphatic capillaries in larger lymphatic vessels and further - in venous bed is a constant flow of fluid from the tissue spaces (see Tissue fluid), which creates pressure pressure in the capillaries of the lymphatic system (see). Great value for lymph circulation has physiological activity of separate organs, contractility walls: lymphatic vessels, pulse movement arterial vessels etc.
Disorders lymph circulation are observed in various pathological. States and, as a rule, are the result of previous diseases. Violations lymph circulation are manifested in the change of qualitative structure of lymph, increasing its number. The character of changes of qualitative composition of plasma depends on the pathological process in the tissue or organ, which flowing lymph. So, if a tumor is composed of lymph present tumor cells and inflammation - a significant number of leukocytes and fibrinogen. Abnormal increase in the number of lymph is a consequence of obstacles to the outflow and / or increase its production (failure lymph circulation). There are mechanical failure lymph circulation, resulting in blockage of the lymph vessels "fibrinous" by clots formed as a result of inflammatory process in case of compression of blood vessels nearby tumor, and so on, and dynamic failure associated with increased permeability of blood capillaries, which leads to a significant increase in the number of tissue fluid has a flowing out through the lymphatic vessels. In addition, there resorption failure lymph circulation, resulting in the violation absorption capacity of endothelium lymphatic capillaries. Disorder of pelvic clinically expressed in the growth and swelling of the affected organ, sometimes there is a gap lymph vessels and the expiration of lymph (lymphorrhea, lymphorrhea). The most common radiological research method lymph circulation (see Angiography).

Lymph circulation and lymph tissue fluid in the body. True inner environment for all cells of the body is the tissue fluid (see), which provides the exchange of substances between the blood and the tissues. Lymph circulation, causing together with the circulation constant updating tissue fluid, plays a huge role in the metabolism of cells throughout the body.
Lymph is composed of: 1) education tissue fluid, blood capillaries and tissues; 2) receipt of excess tissue fluid in the intercellular spaces in the system lymphatic capillaries; 3) the movement of lymph (see) through the lymphatic vessels (see) to the lymph nodes (see); 4) receipt of lymph trunk lymphatic ducts [thoracic duct (see), the right lymphatic duct] in large venous vessels of the neck.
Receipt of tissue fluid through the endothelium lymphatic capillaries occurs in the case when the value of its filtration of blood part capillary blood in interstitial spaces prevails over the reabsorption in venous part of the same capillary. For example, when activity of the body (muscle) dramatically increases the level of blood pressure in the arterial section of the capillary and there is a continuous accumulation of tissue fluid. Increasing its pressure in the intercellular spaces leads to a continuous flow of tissue fluid in the cavity of lymphatic capillaries.
The movement of lymph through the lymphatic vessels due to: higher pressure lymph lymph capillaries than in the thoracic duct and large veins; the presence in the lymph vessels of a large number of valves that prevent the movement of lymph in the retrograde direction; reductions surrounding skeletal muscles, and peristaltic movements of the intestines, contractions of the heart, pulsation of the large arteries. Some authorities (mesentery)detected and private peristaltic movement of the lymphatic vessels.
The study lymph circulation carry out x-ray (injection of contrast media) and radiological (introduction of radioactive isotopes) methods, as well as vivisectional experiments (using a cannula is inserted into the thoracic duct, and the introduction of vital dyes on the periphery).
Violations lymph circulation (ascites, edema), often accompanied by violations of the circulatory system (in case of insufficiency of heart activity), as well as certain pathologies exchange (myxedema). Education swelling inflammation caused by the termination of lymph drainage from the middle of inflammation. Lymphostasis in this case due to spasm of the lymph vessels, distant from the source of inflammation and thrombosis in the zone of the center.