Lymphocytes against cancer

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During the last 15 years to correct the deficiency of T-lymphocytes are used drugs derived from thymus animals and has the ability to accelerate the maturation of T cells. The first drug of this type - timozin was allocated from the extract of the cells of the thymus American biologist A. Goldstein back in 1966, later its analogues were called timopoetin, T-activin, timalin, etc. Now received synthetic Pentapeptide, which also selectively promotes differentiation of T-lymphocytes, but not B-cells. Drugs that series in the experiment were able to slow the development bystrodeistviya tumors, but in the clinic their antitumor activity was weak. Timosin and its derivatives can prevent the defeat of lymphocytes during radiotherapy or chemotherapy or after these therapeutic effects, damaging lymphopoiesis.
Among other immunomodulators was also tested anthelminthic drug levamisole (decaris), providing non-specific immune-stimulating action. Some cancer patients levamisole activated oppressed T-lymphocytes in blood, sometimes reduced suppressor properties of the blood serum, but it proved to be quite selective. It turned out that different people differently sensitive to levamisole, and therefore to its destination must be individual readings. Levamisole as the thymus preparations should not be used for a long time and without immunological control. However, it is clear that these T-stimulants do not cause gain specific cytotoxic action of lymphocytes and of themselves cannot provide a pronounced therapeutic effect in cancer.
In recent years, it was found that one of the main defects of the immune system in the development of malignant tumors is a failure of products or sensitivity of lymphocytes to IL-2. Already in the early stages of cancer patients revealed a lack of lymphocytes are activated by lymphokines-LACQUER (the latter applies to the IL-2), and production of IL-2. This functional immunodeficiency can be associated? a) presence in the serum soluble suppressor factor; b) insufficient synthesis of IL-2 T-helper) with the absence of the predecessors of T-killers of receptors to IL-2; g) to the neutralization of receptors to IL-2 outputs from the activities of the tumor; e) with a total dysfunction of T-lymphocytes cancer patients.
It seems that the identification of circulating lymphocytes pool VARNISH is the primary task of the clinical immunology. The decrease in the number of such cells is not related to the total T-deficit, so now generally accepted methods of resetnavpane of human lymphocytes with sheep red blood cells cannot give the required information. Approaches to diagnosis lie through the definition of lymphocyte receptors to IL-2, the study of the synthesis of IL-2 T-helper or the study of LAK cells characterized by morphological or functional characteristics. It is important that such methods had a simple arrangement and could gain wide clinical application.
In 1983-1985 were conducted numerous experiments on mice with transplantable tumors (sarcomas, melanoma, breast cancer, bowel, bladder), which was intravenously injected syngeneic cells of the spleen, treated with IL-2. It turned out that the introduction of LAK cells or recombinant IL-2 does not cause regression of tumors, but when combined application of the tumor and its metastases are liquidated. Method is called adoptive immunotherapy (from adopte - borrow)because patients mice were administered finish from healthy syngeneic (compatible) animals.