Language

Language (lingua) - muscular body, covered with mucous membrane. Language features - participation in food processing, in the acts of swallowing and speech. There are the root of the tongue, and body, which in the anterior end free rounded end (Fig. 1).

the structure of the anatomy of the tongue Fig. 1. The structure of human language:
1 - lingual-nadgornaya deepening (vallecula epiglottica);
2 - mid language-Nagarjuna fold (plica glossoepiglottica mediana);
3 - the root of the tongue (radix linguae);
4 and 17 - Palatine tonsils (tonsilla palatina and tonsilla palatina);
5 and 15 - lingual tonsil (tonsilla lingualis and am lenticulares);
6 - border groove (sulcus terminalis);
7 - mushroom papillae (papillae fungiformes);
8 - body language (corpus linguae);
9 - the back of the tongue (dorsum linguae);
10 - median sulcus (sulcus medianus linguae);
11 - filiform papillae (papillae filiformes);
12 - conic papillae (papillae conicae);
13 - nipples surrounded by a wall (papillae vallatae);
14 - foliate papillae (papillae foliatae);
16 - blind hole language (foramen cecum linguae);
18 - lateral speaking-Nagarjuna fold (plica glossoepiglottica lat.);
19 - epiglottis (epiglottis).

The language are its own and skeletal muscle. Own muscles is longitudinal, transverse and vertical; skeletal muscle (three pairs) - chin-speaking, sublingual-speaking and French-speaking, they provide tongue movement and fix it alone.
On the upper surface of the tongue between the body and the root has the edge groove, consisting of two halves, converging at an obtuse angle, where a blind hole - a place of the beginning of development of thyroid cancer in the early fetal period. On the lower surface of the tongue are symmetrical folds, the edge of which slightly serrate. From the middle of the lower surface of the tongue to the floor of mouth descends fold of mucous membrane - lore. The mucous membrane, especially on the back and on the edges of body language, has many outgrowths - papillae language: thread, tapered, mushroom, surrounded by a wall, leaf. In the epithelium of papillae mushroom, leaf-shaped and surrounded by a wall are the receptor apparatus of taste sensitivity; filamentous and conic papillae have receptors sensitive, temperature and tactile sensitivity.
In the thickness of the mucous membrane of the tongue are a large number of lymphoid follicles, which form lingual almond. Under the mucous membrane and between the muscles of the tongue are small salivary gland (mucous, serous and mixed).
The blood supply of the language is provided mainly ramifications lingual artery is a branch of the external carotid artery. Venous outflow - speaking Vienna and then in the internal jugular vein. The regional lymph nodes language - popodrobnee, partially submandibular, deep cervical (front and top group).
Innervation is a language-sensitive - lingual nerve, which are also the taste of fiber drum strings to mushroom and leaf papilla, and linguistic pharyngeal carrying taste fiber and surrounded by a wall papilla; motor - hypoglossal nerve.

Language (lingua, glossa) is a muscular organ that plays an important role in the act of speech and processing of food intake.
Language probes the consistency of food, determines its taste, temperature, promotes mixing prozhiyvanii food, the formation of a food lump, participates in the act of swallowing. In infants language provides sucking the breast. These functions are implemented through a highly tactile and motor vehicles language.


Anatomy
In the language there are (Fig. 1) root (radix linguae), Central Department - body {corpus linguae) and tip (apex linguae). The body and the tip mobile, but the root is connected with the hyoid bone, so almost motionless.
On the upper surface, or the back, language (dorsum linguae) is the median sulcus language (sulcus medianus linguae). Accordingly, this longitudinal furrow in the thickness of the language is a thin connective tissue record - partition language (septum linguae); it divides the language into two symmetrical halves. At the rear end of the furrow on the border of the body and the root of the tongue is the so-called blind hole language (foramen cecum linguae), which is a trace opened here obliterirutego duct thyroid (ductus thyreoglossus). Partial or complete cleft flow leads to a number of pathological processes in the language. The lower surface of the tongue (facies inf. linguae) addressed to the bottom of the mouth. On it there are symmetrically located on the sides under the tip of the Ya smooth folds (plicae fimbriatae), and on the middle line from the lower surface of the tip Ya to the bottom of the mouth and chin down the so-called bridle Ya (frenulum linguae).
The border between the upper and lower surface of the tongue are Krai Ya (margo
linguae). The mucous membrane of the tongue is covered with multi-layer flat epithelium; it contains a large number of papillae: filiform (papillae filiformes), mushroom (papillae fungiformes), galabovci (papillae vallatae), leaf (papillae foliatae). These papillae, except filiform contain taste buds (Fig. 2). Filiform papillae are on the entire surface of the tip and body Ya, they give a smooth appearance mucosa Ya Mushroom papilla in the amount of 150-200 are among filiform, mainly closer to the edges of the language. Globularia nipples number from 7 to 11 are on the edge furrow (sulcus terminalis) between the body and the root Ya, each papilla is surrounded by deepening (the trench). Foliate papillae consist of. 5-8 vertical creases and are located at the edges of Ya in the posterior part of his body.
In the mucosa of the upper surface of the tongue, there are various size follicles; they act on the surface of the tongue in the form of rounded bumps and constitute speaking the amygdala (tonsilla lingualis). Backward direction from the follicles mucous membrane switches on the epiglottis. Flanking the base of the tongue, the soft palate is raised palato-lingual shackle (arcus palatoglossus) - fold of mucous membrane, which contains palato-lingual muscle. Along with gustatory papillae in the different departments Ya there mucous, serous and mixed cancer.
The muscles of the tongue are to striated. They are divided into two groups: private and skeletal muscle Ya Own muscles four: upper longitudinal (m. longitudinalis sup.) - shortens Ya and raises its tip up; lower longitudinal (m. longitudinalis ini.)- shortens Ya; transverse muscle Ya (m. transversa linguae) - reduces the transverse size Ya; vertical muscle Ya (m. verticalis linguae) - with its help language thickens. Tendon beams these muscles and connective tissue submucosal layer Ya form the aponeurosis Ya (aponeurosis linguae).
Skeletal muscles three language pairs: chin-speaking (m. genioglossus) - pulling the tongue forward and down; sublingual-speaking (m. hyoglossus)- pulls tongue back and down; Seleziona (m. styloglossus) - pulls tongue up and back. These muscles in varying degrees intertwined; in fiber spaces between the muscles in the case of inflammation occurs accumulation of fluid.
The blood supply of the language mainly at the expense of the branches of the external carotid artery - lingual artery (a. lingualis). Deep branch (a. profunda linguae) is situated in the thick body and the tip of the tongue; the dorsal surface of the tongue is supplied back its branches (rami dorsales linguae).
The root of the tongue additionally supplied from rising Palatine artery (a. palatina ascendens) and ascending pharyngeal artery (a. pharyngea ascendens). Vienna language (v. lingualis) is formed at the root Ya, together with lingual artery comes to the front edge sublingual-speaking muscles, located near hypoglossal nerve, and discharges into the internal jugular vein (v. jugularis int.) or in General facial vein (v. facialis).
Lymphatic vessels are Ya in the mucosa and in the depth of the muscle. They are linked to regional lymph nodes: podozritelnyj (Inn. submentales), submandibular (Inn. submandibulares), deep upper cervical (Inn. cervicales profundi). The lymphatic vessels of both halves of the language anastomosis.
Sensitive innervation of the body and the tip Ya is the lingual nerve (n. lingualis), root Ya - glossopharyngeal (n. glossopharyngeus), mucous membranes, on the border with the epiglottis - upper laryngeal nerve (n. laryngeus sup.); taste buds innervated by the drum string (chorda tympani) and the glossopharyngeal nerve. The muscles of the tongue innervates hypoglossal nerve (n. hypoglossus).