Linguistology (linguatulidoses)- invasion of humans and animals arthropods squad Linguatulida (reed), class Arachnoidea (arachnids). There are ligatures and porocevalec.
Ligatures (linguatulosis). Pathogen - Linguatula serrata. The body of the parasite lanceolate; female length of 80 to 130 mm and width up to 8-10 mm, male 18-20 mm in length and width up to 3 mm (Fig. 1, 2 and 3). In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the nose and frontal sinuses dogs, wolves, foxes, horses, causing rhinitis and sinusitis. In the stage of larva parasite in humans, hare, rabbit, large and small cattle, Guinea pigs. With secretions from the nose final owners (dogs and others) in the environment fall eggs lightely. The infection occurs when a person swallows these eggs from contaminated food. The disease is registered in all parts of the world.

Fig. 1 - 3. Linguatula serrata. Fig. 1. The female. Fig. 2. Larvae Linguatula serrata and larvae developing in the egg, b - embryo with two pairs of limbs with hooks; in - larva of the rabbit liver; g - larva 9 weeks (1 - nerve node, 2 - digestive tube, 3 - skin cancer, 4 - mouth, 5 - anus, 6 - sex gland). Fig. 3. Mature larva, which can infect the dog (1 - mouth, 2 - two pair of hooks - the rudiments of legs, 3 - intestine, 4 - anus). Fig. 4 and 5. Porocephalus armillatus. Fig. 4. The female. Fig. 5. Larva, inkapsulirovat under the serous cover.
Fig. 6. Many nymphs P. armillatus in the wall of the descending colon.

The pathogeny and clinic lenghtwise studied very poorly. In the stomach swollen from eggs lightely hatch into larvae, which pass through the wall of the digestive tract into the abdominal cavity and hence enter the liver, lungs and other organs, where are encapsulated. After several rope's end they turn into migrating larvae, invazirujutsja various organs and body cavities. Usually ligatures subclinical, but sometimes are bleeding in the lungs. Lifetime diagnosis has not been studied; the disease is detected at autopsy. Treatment is unknown. Prevention is the thorough washing and obvalivanie boiling vegetables and fruits.
Porocevalec (porocephalosis). Pathogen - Porocephalus (Armillifer) armillatus. The body of the parasite yellowish, with banners; female 90-120 mm, the males are 30-50 mm in length (Fig. 4 and 5). In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the Airways large African snakes (Python, and others), who are the ultimate owners of the parasite. The intermediate hosts of man, monkey, giraffe, antelope, a hedgehog, a white rat. Infection of humans and other intermediate hosts is through food, contaminated secretions snakes, containing eggs of the parasite. Not exclude the possibility of infection and by eating meat infested with snakes. The disease is spread in a number of African countries.
Clinic of porocevalca is poorly studied. In some cases it subclinical, sometimes severe form of the disease. Describes the occurrence of bronchitis, pneumonia, meningitis, obstructive jaundice caused by the accumulation of larval forms (nymphs) of the parasite in the common bile duct, intestinal obstruction in the massive invasion of its walls nymphs of the parasite (Fig. 6). Recognition of porocevalca in life is possible only after the calcification of the nymphs of the parasite. The radiological examination they are visible in the form of two contour formations resembling broken at one end of the chain links. Treatment is not developed.