Lyotropic series

Lyotropic ranks (from the Greek. lуо - dissolve and trope - edit) - the ranks of ions located in the degree of influence on the properties of the solvent (mainly water). These are L. R. ions located in their natural growing or ubyvayuschimi impact on: 1) viscosity and surface tension, 2) solubility, 3) swelling of the high-molecular substances (proteins, pectin, agar, starch and other) and gel their water solutions, 4) their salting out and coacervation, 5) stability of colloids to coagulate. Known lyotropic series in gemoliticescuu action on the cells, suppression of excitability of muscles and nerves, etc. the Most studied L. R. inorganic anions:
Less clear differences in lyotropic action in the ranks of single - and double-cations of metals main subgroups I and II groups of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Lyotropic series of anions was established by the Court (N. Hofmeister), who studied salting out of albumin and sodium salts of various acids (called a number of Comptroller). The existence L. R. explain different hydrothermally ions that take water molecules from particles dissolved substances. The degree of hydration of ions in the above number decreases from left to right.
The sequence of ions in lyotropic series is not strictly constant and can vary depending on conditions (pH, salt concentration, temperature).