Lipase (synonym steapsin) - enzymes that chip off from neutral fats (triglycerides) fatty acid molecules with the formation of di-, monoglycerides and free of glycerin.
The main source L., splitting fats food is the secret of the pancreas. A small number of J1. there is also the mucous membrane of thin intestines. The pH optimum of these L. lies between 7 and 8, i.e. corresponds to the pH of the secret of the upper parts of the small intestine. Their activity increases significantly in the presence of cations Ca2 + , Mg2 + , bile salts, and many other factors that increase the degree of emulsification of fats in the intestine. In the stomach of a small activity of L. is found only in infants, and optimum action of gastric HP, unlike HP pancreas and intestines, lies at pH 5. Some activity L., find sometimes in the gastric juice of adults, apparently caused the HP throws in the stomach, intestinal juice.
Action L. reversible, and already in the intestinal juice is partially re-synthesis of decay products of fats mono - and diglycerides. With great intensity resynthesis of fat occurs in the intestinal wall, and therefore the blood from the intestine receives only a small amount of free fatty acids. Activity L. the various bodies varies significantly and is most pronounced in the liver, lungs, and adipose tissue. In the blood of the normal activity of L. small, but increasing dramatically in acute pancreatitis, when necrotic processes in the liver and lungs. In acute pancreatitis L. penetrating from the pancreas into the blood, can cause significant lipolysis in adipose tissue and necrosis.
Increased activity of L. in the blood in acute pancreatitis observed during rather long period (2-3 weeks); therefore, its definition is more reliably confirms the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, what is the definition diastase blood. The increase in the concentration of L. in the blood is usually accompanied by a considerable increase in its excretion with urine. Cm. the Digestive Enzymes.