Listeriosis (synonym laterales) is an infectious disease related to the group of zoonoses, characterized polymorphous clinical picture.
Etiology. The causative agent of listeriosis - Listeria monocytogenes - belongs to the group of germs of the genus Listeria. Listeria have the form of rods and cocci with flagella, mobile.
Epidemiology. Listeriosis is widely distributed among rodents, pigs, cattle, horses, birds and, less frequently in cats and dogs. People listeriosis occur sporadically. The main source of the infection are infected food of animal origin. Human infection is also possible inhalation of contaminated dust. Described cases of infection through the egg, when it bites a person sick animals, infected ticks, and also through the scratches (at meat processing plants). Possibly intrauterine infection.
Pathogenesis. Gateway infections are gastrointestinal tract, tonsils, damaged skin and mucous membranes. Lymphogenous and hematogenous routes Listeria spread throughout the body and can affect all organs and tissues. Often the process is localized in the Central nervous system and meningeal membrane.
Pathological anatomy. The disease occurs as sepsis with the formation of miliary necrosis and granulomas almost in all organs. Often affects the liver, spleen, adrenal glands, lungs, throat, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, Central nervous system and skin.
The clinical picture. For listeriosis characteristic polymorphism of clinical course. The incubation period lasts up to two weeks. The disease may be accompanied by fever, chills, headache, sore throat, symptoms eyes, swollen lymph nodes, skin eruptions, catarrhal phenomena upper respiratory tract, dyspeptic phenomena, enlargement of the liver and spleen, pain in the limbs, muscle weakness, up to a paralysis of extremities. May develop meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. In blood: lakopenia, an increase of mononuclear cells (up to 70% and above) with a predominance of lymphocytes, there is often monocytosis.
The diagnosis is based on clinical supply difficult. To highlight Listeria explore detachable conjunctiva, throat, genital tract, blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, meconium newborns, and also put agglutination reaction of binding complement, precipitation and indirect haemagglutination.
The treatment is complex. Apply a broad-spectrum antibiotics, sulfa drugs and symptomatic funds.
Prevention includes veterinary-sanitary measures for detection of listeriosis in animals, rodents, sanitary inspection on food enterprises. Specific prevention is not developed.
Listeriosis newborns is a severe disease that is caused by intrauterine infection. Infection of the fetus occurs through the placenta from listeriosis pregnant women.
The clinical picture is characterized by the symptoms of septic conditions and disorders of the respiratory and blood circulation. Newborns are marked episodes of stopping breathing (apnea), phenomena of cardiovascular weakness, shortness of breath. Asthma patients difficult treatment, often lead to death. The disease may occur with increasing temperature. The liver and spleen, as a rule, increased. Changes in the lungs clinically resemble bronchopneumonia, and radiographically miliary TB; characteristic papular and petechial rash on the skin. Sometimes proceeds as a purulent meningitis with fever, convulsions, opistotonus, with changes in the spinal fluid. The disease may end in the destruction of the fetus in the period of intrauterine development. Frequent premature birth. Often children are killed in the first days of life.
Treatment. Use of penicillin in conventional doses, vitamins, mainly b and C, restorative therapy.