Parasites liver

In the liver of humans and animals can be found protozoa and helminths. So, from the intestines into the bile ducts can penetrate Giardia (see Giardiasis); Leishmania (see Leishmaniasis) multiply in the protoplasm coppersky cells, as well as the agents of Chagas disease (see Trypanosomosis).
In human liver is Exo-erythrocytic development cycle of the malaria parasites (see). The causative agent of amebiasis (see) infects the liver with amoebic dysentery; it penetrates in the liver by the system of portal vein and violates cell nutrition hepatic parenchyma, resulting there are necrosis and abscesses.
Of helminthes in the intra - and extrahepatic ducts and gall bladder trematode parasites (see Opisthorchiasis, Fascioliasis, Klonorhoz, Dicroceliosis). They called cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis. Through the liver larvae migrate Ascaris (see Ascariasis). The liver is the development of agents and multi-chamber Echinococcus.
Liver echinococcosis flows for the same regularities as the echinococcosis (see) in General. There are heatedly (single-chamber) and the alveolar (multichamber) echinococcosis of the liver. The first to appear granulomas are little painful education in the liver. Complications - festering if Echinococcus cyst, break it in the chest or abdominal cavity, bronchi, biliary tract, education chronic bronchial fistulas.
Etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of alveolar echinococcosis of the liver - see Liviococcia.
The essential help in the diagnosis has a reaction of Casoni, and at the alveolar echinococcosis and reaction with latex, and the x-ray and radioisotope study of the liver.
Treatment only online. Produce drainage of cysts or its complete destruction, with alveolar echinococcosis shown resection of liver in the healthy tissues.

Parasites. The liver of humans and animals is the habitat of many parasites: protozoa, helminths, rarely arthropods.
The malaria parasites (see) of the person (all four species) do ectericidum stage of development in the parenchyma cells Of P. established in liver cell of sporozoite develops schizont with large numbers of cores. When ripe schizont cell dies and in its place is infiltration by leukocytes. This process of development is observed during the incubation period, and in some species of malaria parasites, apparently, and in the secondary latent period.
Some researchers believe that in Petrograd, gall bladder and bile ducts can penetrate intestinal pathogens of giardiasis (see)that cause here functional and organic changes, especially in combination with bacterial infection.
The causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (see) affects the reticuloendothelial cells P. and other organs. Leishmania breed in the cytoplasm of cells. The last increase in size and sometimes perform clearance venules.
The causative agent of Chagas disease (see Trypanosomosis.) penetrates into cells Confer and multiplies in their cytoplasm. In the cells die.
The causative agent of amebiasis (see) can also affect P. (amebic dysentery). It penetrates down the system of portal vein and violates food parenchyma cells. As a result of this, as well as actions cytolytic enzymes occur necrosis and abscesses. Together with amoebae in such centers can get bacteria. Around the abscess formed by granulation tissue and inflammatory area, where you can find amoebae. Long remittent fever, weight loss, increase in the size P., pain in temper side, radiating to the right shoulder, the expansion of intercostal spaces on the right, leukocytosis - these are the main clinical signs amebic abscess P. recognition of amebiasis, in addition to laboratory studies on amoebae, resort to serological reactions to the antigen from Entamoeba histolytica.
Of helminthes in the intra - and extra-hepatic ducts, gallbladder person and some mammals trematode parasites: Opisthorchis felineus, O. viver-rini (see Opistorhoz), Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica (see Fasciolata), Clonorchis sinensis (see Klonorhoz), Dicrocoelium lanceatum (see Dicroceliosis). They called cholangitis, biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, hepatitis and cirrhosis.
In blood vessels P. parasite Schistosoma (see Schistosomiasis): Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, S. haematobium.
Of cestodes in Petrograd parasitize Alveococcus (Echinococcus) multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, larvae (tsistitserki) pork tapeworm - Taenia solium (see Tenedos).
From roundworms via P. larvae migrate Ascaris; sometimes in Petrograd penetrate adult roundworm (see Ascariasis).
Of arthropods in Petrograd found larvae Linguatula serrata (see Linguistology).
Echinococcosis. The liver, mainly the right proportion, is the most frequent localization Echinococcus as hydatidosis and alveolar. The disease runs with the same laws that and echinococcosis (see) in General and manifested the same overall characteristics (periodic appearance of rash, a positive test of Casoni, and so on), but along with this if Echinococcus cyst liver has its characteristic symptoms. Having reached a considerable size, it begins to cause a sense of gravity in the right hypochondrium and stomach, mild shortness of breath on exertion, later dull, aching pain in the P. closer to the surface P. is a cyst and the more vyrajenie painful symptoms. When localization Echinococcus in the dome P. appears right menicus-symptom. Sometimes nausea, increasing weakness, fatigue in the absence of weight loss, anemia, and so on, sometimes even very large cysts are asymptomatic.
The most constant progressive deformation of the right hypochondrium (rib hump). Noticeable on the eyes rounded bulging of the abdominal wall, often with advanced subcutaneous veins. Palpated elastic smooth hemispherical swelling on the front surface of increased painless P. the Front edge of the liver remains pointed lies lateral and the more medially swelling. Ascites and jaundice occur if the cyst location near the gate P. Phenomenon shake hydatid not common, most possible when echinococcosis P., if the cyst is very high.
With festering Echinococcus P. develop stunning chills, fever hectic type, sweats. Exacerbated pain in the liver, swelling becomes painful, is rapidly increasing, as the P. Simultaneously progressing severe the symptoms of intoxication and depletion. Threatens the development of sepsis or breakthrough festering cysts in one body cavity or hollow organs, it is rarely out through the abdominal wall. If the cyst is very high and the wall her very much thinned, its possible breakthrough in the living parasite even from small push, etc., Festering if Echinococcus cyst often crop up in the pleural cavity, and in the presence of basal pleurisy - in bronchus; in this case, the breakthrough can be easily detected by a strong cough with purulent discharge of liquid sputum and child bubbles. Much less often a cyst breaks free of the abdominal cavity, which is often accompanied by the picture of collapse. The cyst is rapidly reduced in size, very often in these cases, there is a painful rash. Later develops a picture of peritonitis. Even rarer cyst breaks out in large intrahepatic bile ducts or gallbladder. Symptoms of these cases the picture of a severe bout of gallstone disease with chills, high fever, vomiting, jaundice; later develops picture cholangitis. Breakthrough of naniniwala if Echinococcus cyst liver is more likely to happen in the free abdominal cavity. This complication occurs relatively more favorable, but creates a great danger of dissemination Echinococcus.
The number of complications Echinococcus P. occurs due to pressure cysts on biliary tract, portal vein (obstructive jaundice, ascites).
To differentiate if Echinococcus cyst P. should tumor P., cirrhosis, dropsy of the gallbladder, calculous cholecystitis.
Treatment only online. There are two types of intervention - open and closed echinococcectomy (see Echinococcosis). In those cases, when it comes to uncomplicated if Echinococcus cysts in the absence of child bubbles, most justified stitching tightly cavity cysts (closed echinococcectomy) after treatment 2-3% formalin-glycerine solution for 5 minutes In the presence of the child bubbles closed echinococcectomy contraindicated.
The clinical picture of the alveolar Echinococcus liver kind. For several years, even if there is already a large hilly tumors and increased thick lumpy P., the disease is often asymptomatic, in good General condition of the patient, without signs of cachexia. However, much more than when hydatidosis the Echinococcus, there jaundice, ascites (10-15%), enlargement of the spleen; the reaction of Casoni positive. Further progress decline power, weakness. An adverse outcome, if not promptly made the operation resection of the affected area Ii. within healthy tissue (I. L. Bregadze, V. S. Semenov and others), where possible.
Cm. also Hepato-lenticular degeneration, Hepato-linaly syndrome, Hepato-renal syndrome, Jaundice, Gallstones, liver Cirrhosis.