Liver

topography liver
Fig. 1. The topography of the liver: 1 - stomach 2 - projection of the pancreas; 3 - duodenum; 4 - gallbladder; 5 - the common bile duct; 6 - liver.

The liver is the largest gland in the body, participating in the processes of metabolism, digestion, blood circulation and blood.
Anatomy. The liver is located in the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium, the upper abdomen and comes to the left hypochondrium. It comes in contact with the esophagus, stomach, right kidney and adrenal gland with transverse colon and duodenum (Fig. 1).
Liver consists of two parts: left and right (Fig. 2). On the lower surface of the liver are two longitudinal and transverse groove - gate liver. These grooves are divided right share actually right, tailed and square share. In the right groove are the gallbladder and the lower hollow vein. At the gate of the liver includes the portal vein, hepatic artery, nerves and face hepatic bile duct and lymphatic vessels. The liver, with the exception of the rear surface, covered by the peritoneum and has a connective tissue capsule (pisanova capsule).the structure liver

Fig. 2. The structure of the liver: (a lower surface; b - the upper surface): 1 - the lower hollow vein; 2 - portal standing of the hepatic vein; 3 - the common bile duct; 4 - the right lobe of the liver; 5 - cystic duct; 6 - gallbladder; 7 - hepatic duct; 8 - the left lobe of the liver; 9 - ligament of the liver.


Hepatic slice consisting of hepatic cells is the main structural unit of the liver. Liver cells are in the form of fibers, called hepatic beams. They are gall capillaries, the walls of which are liver cells, and between them - blood capillaries walls formed star (mapfromscene) cells. In the centre of cloves is the Central Vienna. Hepatic lobules are parenchyma of the liver. Between them in the connective tissue are magdalsophia artery, Vienna and bile duct. The liver receives double the blood from the hepatic artery and portal vein, (see). The outflow of blood is from the liver through a Central vein, which merge into the hepatic veins, opening into the inferior Vena cava. On the periphery of the slices from the gall of capillaries are formed magdalsophia bile ducts, which merge to form in the gate of the liver hepatic duct, leading bile from the liver. Hepatic, duct is connected with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct (relevanssi duct)flowing into the duodenum through her big nipple (Federov the nipple).
Physiology. Vsosavchegosa from the intestines to the blood of matter through the portal vein of the liver, where they undergo a chemical change. Part of the liver is proved in all types of metabolism (see Nitrogen metabolism, Bilirubin, Fat metabolism, Pigmentary exchange, Carbohydrate metabolism). Liver participates in water-salt exchange and in the persistence of acid-alkaline equilibrium. In the liver shall be deposited with the vitamins of groups b, C, D, E and K). From carotene in the liver formed vitamin A.
The barrier function of the liver is to delay of some toxic substances coming through the portal vein, and translating them into harmless for the organism of connection. Not less important function of the liver in the Deposit blood. The vessels of the liver can accommodate up to 20% of all blood that circulates in the bloodstream.
The liver has jelcheobrazovanie function. Bile in the structure contains many substances circulating in the blood (bilirubin, hormones, drugs)and bilious acids formed in the liver. Bile acids to hold dissolved of a number of substances in the bile (cholesterol, calcium salts, lecithin). Getting to jelchew in intestine, they contribute to the emulsification and absorption of fat. In the process of formation of bile participate kuperovskaya and liver cells. In the process of choleresis influence humoral (peptone, salt holeva acid and others), hormonal (adrenaline, thyroxine, ACTH, cortinas, sex hormonesand the nervous factors.

The liver (hepar) is the largest gland in the human body, participating in the processes of digestion, metabolism and blood circulation, provides specific enzymatic and excretory functions.
Embryology
The liver develops from epithelial protrusion average intestine. At the end of the first month of fetal life hepatic diverticulum begins to differentiate into the cranial part of which is formed then all parenchyma P., Central and caudal part, giving the beginning of the gall bladder and bile ducts. The primary tab P. due to intensive reproduction of cells is growing rapidly and is embedded in mesenchyme ventral mesentery. Epithelial cells are arranged in rows, forming hepatic beams. Between cells remain slits in the bile ducts, and between the beams from the mesenchyme formed blood tubes and first formed blood elements. P. six-week embryo already has glandular structure. Increasing in volume, it is the fruit of all subphrenic area and is distributed Caudalie to the bottom floor of the abdominal cavity.