Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system, participating together with venous bed in the outflow of fluid from the tissues (Fig. 1). The roots of the lymphatic system are the lymphatic capillaries, which come from the tissues of the products of metabolism, and in pathological conditions, foreign particles and microorganisms. Through the lymphatic vessels can spread malignant tumors. Lymphatic capillaries are thin-walled endothelial tube that connects to the network; they are everywhere, except the brain and the spinal cord, the parenchyma of the spleen, cartilage, sclera and lens of the eye, the placenta. Diameter of lymphatic capillaries is several times the diameter of the blood capillaries. At the confluence of the lymphatic capillaries and lymphatic vessels are formed, which are characterized by the presence of valves, providing the lymph flow in one direction. In areas where valves are formed narrowing, in connection with which vessels are EcoObraz form. Lymph vessels form in the walls of the organs shirokopolosnye plexus. From the organ or body part out several groups outlet lymphatic vessels heading to nearby regional lymph nodes. It flows through the lymph node lymph enriched by lymphocytes. Lymph nodes are involved in the processes of blood and protective reactions of the organism. They are active biological filters, produce antibodies and regulate the flow of lymph. In the lymph nodes there is a confluence of currents of lymph from private bodies operating in this field. Lymphatic vessels coming out of the lymph nodes that form a larger vessels of the lymphatic trunks (lumbar, intestinal, subclavian, jugular and bronchial and mediastinal). Trunks merge in two lymph flow: breast duct that collect lymph from tissues 3/4 of the body, and the right lymphatic duct, collecting lymph from the right half of the head and neck, the right half of the thoracic cavity and the right hand. Thoracic duct (the length from 30 to 41 cm) begins in the abdominal cavity, passes through the aperture in the posterior mediastinum and continues on his neck, falling into the left subclavian vein. Right lymphatic duct (length 1-1,5 cm) is located on the border of the neck and chest to the right and into the right subclavian vein. To the lymphatic system also include lymphoid follicles of the mucous membranes and tonsils.
Lymphatic system diagram

Fig. 1. Lymphatic system (front view): 1 - lymphatic vessels person; 2 - submandibular lymph nodes; 3 - popodrobnee lymph nodes; 4 - the mouth of the thoracic duct; 5 - front mediastinal lymph nodes; 6 - axillary lymph nodes; 7 - superficial lymphatic vessels of the hands, following along the head of Vienna; 8 - medial group superficial lymphatic vessels hands; 9 - lumbar lymph nodes; 10 - top iliac lymph nodes; 11 - internal iliac lymph nodes; 12 - the superficial inguinal lymph nodes; 13 - medial group superficial lymphatic vessels of the lower leg; 14 - lateral group of surface the lymphatic vessels of the lower leg; 15 - the superficial lymphatic vessels of the foot; 16 - deep lymphatic vessels of the foot; 17-deep lymphatic vessels of the lower leg; 18 - deep lymphatic vessels hips; 19 - deep lymphatic vessels hands; 20 - deep inguinal lymph nodes; 21 - bottom iliac lymph nodes; 22 - deep lymphatic vessels of the forearm; 23 - thoracic duct; 24 - intercostal lymph nodes; 25 - surface elbow lymph nodes; 26 - shoulder lymph nodes; 27 - subclavian barrel; 28 - jugular barrel; 29 - deep cervical lymph nodes; 30 - jugular-digastric lymph node; 31 - pozadini lymph node; 32 - parotid lymph nodes.