Lysozyme

Lysozyme - enzymecontained in the cells, egg white, skin, mucous membranes, and certain body fluids (saliva, tears). Lysozyme splits mucopolysaccharides, which constitute the structure of the cell wall of the bacteriacausing the lysis of bacteria. Lysozyme protects the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, intestinal tract and nasopharynx from infection.

Lysozyme (muromidaza) - enzyme with the specific ability to cause the dissolution of some microorganisms. Fleming (A. Fleming) joined bacteriolytic protein substances of different origin in group "Lysikov".
Human lysozyme found in tears, sputum, saliva, blood serum and plasma in human milk, in the mucous membrane of the nose, the spleen, liver, bone marrow, cartilage, gland, blood, heart, in extracts of the intestines and pancreas. L. was found in plants (a horse-radish, radish, turnip, cabbage, primrose), some bacteria and viruses (bacteriophages). L. macrophages are involved in intracellular digestion of microbes. The content of lysozyme in animal and plant facilities varies widely. Its highest concentration found in the protein chicken eggs, horseradish and tears. The selection of the enzyme is based on its ability to adsorb on bentonite clay followed by elution of acidified pyridine (pH=5.0).
Lysozyme from various sources obtained in the crystalline form. Its physico-chemical properties and political activity varies widely. Mol. mass L. animal equal to 14 800, from plants - 24 000, from bacteriophage - 13 900. HP is one polypeptide chain, consisting of 130-150 amino acid residues; contains sulfhydryl groups; resistant to heated to 100 degrees in the acidic environment.
Lysozyme activity is determined by the degree of lysis of highly sensitive to it of micrococci (Micrococcus lysodeikticus). Gram-negative microbes sensitive L., gram - resistant. The mechanism of action HP is reduced to the enzymatic breakdown of rigid moneynowusa layer bacterial cell wall that is accompanied by release murinova, diaminopimelate, glutamic and aspartic acid, glucosamine, alanine, serine and lysine. As a result, the cell takes the form of a ball (protoplast) and in hypertensive environment, saves it, and in ISO - or hypotonic - torn (see Bacteriosis). Thus, using HP has provided important information about the anatomy of the bacterial cell. L. is used in the food industry for preservation (e.g. eggs). Cm. also Enzymes.