Magnets eye

Fig. 1. Permanent eye magnet "Magnito" with a tip. Fig. 2. A powerful magnet for foreign extraction of magnetic bodies of the eye.

Magnets eye - special devices used in ophthalmic surgery to remove from the eyeball or surrounding tissues magnetic foreign bodies (fragments of iron, steel). There are constant eye magnets (Fig. 1) and eye electromagnets. Small hand-eye electromagnets and permanent eye magnets have a weak attractive force and are used for removal of superficial foreign bodies conjunctiva, cornea, and from the cavity global eye magnets (Fig. 2), especially vnutripolostny electromagnet, are an important power of attraction. They are used to extract deeply buried foreign bodies from the cavity eyeball. After you cut the outer casing eyeball to the wound put the tip of a magnet and thanks to the magnetic pull of the fragment are removed from the eye. From a cavity of the eye magnetic foreign body can be removed through the front of the camera after the preliminary sections on a limb (the so-called front path extraction) or through an incision sclera (the so-called back, or dialerline, the way of extraction). Tips eye magnets are sterilized by boiling.

Magnets eye - special devices used in eye surgery to extract from the eye and its surrounding parts magnetic foreign bodies (shards of iron, steel and so on).
All used in eye surgery magnets on a construction can be divided into electric and the so-called permanent, not requiring for their actions supply. Electromagnets can be divided into so-called serdechnaya and magnets-solenoids, or vnutripolostny. Serdechnaya eye magnets usually have a Central core (core) soft iron cylindrical or other form, of different length and thickness in different models of magnets; outside the core is surrounded by a coil of several layers of insulated copper wire. By the end of the core can screw different forms tips - shaped, curved, etc., There are serdechnaya eye magnets small, medium and large size.
Magnets small and medium size (the so-called manual) have the weight up to 2-2,5 kg, and the surgeon can hold their hand during the operation. This group includes the proposed Girshberg small hand M. G. (Fig. 1), manual magnet B. L. Pole with power from the battery (Fig. 2) etc. To Meters, large referred magnets Haab (Fig. 3), Volkmann (Fig. 6), Schumann, etc. All these magnets stationary type, and have a much greater force than manual, differ among themselves with capacity, system installation, the system rectifiers (transformers, translating AC to DC), and other
Vnutripolostny eye magnet or magnet-solenoid (system of Mellinger - Klingeltone or more powerful domestic magnet-solenoid EMA, (Fig. 4), is a broad oval ring thickness of about 10 a, consisting of a large number of turns of copper insulated wire; core in it. Internal clearance rings are designed in such a way that it can hold the head of an adult. If the head of the patient in the eye which is a foreign body, placed inside the ring and pass through a magnet electric current, while inside the ring creates a magnetic field and an intraocular foreign body is magnetized. During surgery, the surgeon removes the foreign body special bars (Fig. 5) various sizes and forms that become strong magnets, getting in a magnetic field. Vnutripolostny eye magnet is adapted for operations in the sitting, and supine position of the patient. Changing the current strength by means of available when the magnet rheostat, applying accordingly thicker or thinner sticks closer to the operated eye or more away, in very wide limits to change the strength of the magnet. Electric magnets-solenoids have a number of advantages over serdechnymi, the main one being that they leave free the operative field, allowing the surgeon during the operation to see the eyes and face of the patient and easy to manipulate tools.
Constant M, made from special alloys, who are able to be magnetized and securely hold the obtained magnetic properties. Magnets of this type are of cylindrical rods with a diameter of about 5 cm and a length of about 20 cm (Fig. 7), with a tapered end, which can privinchivayutsya thin tips of different shapes. Strength permanent magnets are significantly inferior powerful electric magnets; positive side is that they do not require electricity.
Eye magnets used not only to extract from the eye and its surrounding parts magnetic foreign bodies, but also for the diagnosis (the so-called magnetic test)when you want to find out in advance magnetic or nonmagnetic is a foreign body found in the eye (and usually precisely localized radiographic method or by clinical examination). On the positive nature of diagnostic magnetic samples judge or on objective grounds (visible fragment offset; swelling
membranes of eyes to the tip of the magnet)or subjective ("pulling" or painful feeling sick when approaching a magnet to the eye, containing magnetic foreign body).
Actually magnetic operations are widely used in eye clinic, since about 1/3 of all penetrating wounds of the eyeball is accompanied by ingestion eyes of foreign bodies, most of which are magnetic and can be removed by M. G. Magnetic operations (when using powerful magnets and the right methodology extraction) give a very high percentage of immediate success (over 95%). Cm. Foreign bodies (the eye).

Fig. 1. Small handheld electric magnet of Girshberg.
Fig. 3. Electric magnet Haab
Fig. 4. Vnutripolostny electric solenoid magnet.
Fig. 5. Set of bars to vnutripolostnoe electric magnet.
Fig. 6. Electric magnet of Volkmann.
Fig. 7. Permanent magnet "Magnito" with a tip.