Magnus-Klein reflexes

Magnus-Klein reflexes (Century Magnus, A. Kleijn) - tonic reflexes, providing the body position and its balance and matching statement of the trunk and extremities with the position of the head.
Work Magnus, Klein and others have shown that the brain is a complex system reflex centres, to insure that the provisions of the body in space (static reflexes), and motor reaction, which body is responsible for active and passive movements and to compensate for resulting displacement (statokinetic reflexes).
1. Static reflexes can be divided into two large groups: reflexes determining the position of a body at rest,the so - called reflexes provisions, and reflexes, causing the return of the various provisions in the original, so - called reflexes installation.
Reflexes provisions are studied on decerebration animals, as decerebrate off reflexes installation, the center of which is higher (average brain, red engine), and allows, therefore, to study the reflexes provisions in isolated form. At the General state of the body is affected by the position of the head. Changing the position of the head, annoyed, first, the nerves of the neck muscles (tonic neck reflex, study after preliminary destruction of both labyrinths), and secondly, mazes (labyrinth reflexes, to study which needed fixing neck patch that disables the action cervical reflexes). Cervical reflexes: head rotation increases the extensor tone those legs, toward which the head is drawn chin, and flexion tone in the extremities of the opposite side; bend the head leads to increased flexion tone, extension head - to strengthen the extensor tone. In contrast cervical reflexes labyrinth reflexes always change the tone of all four limbs in the same direction.
Reflexes installation discover animals with the preserved area of red nuclei. Decerebration animal is, if it will put falls, if it is being pushed, and may not independently re-up; the animal with intact midbrain, on the contrary, able of each position to return to normal. In this installation functions involve many of the reflexes, the starting point is the receptor organs.
This group reflexes are first of all labyrinth installation reflexes.
If you raise rabbit in the air and start to raise and lower his pelvis so that the rump remained in an upright position (rotation of the pelvis through the front axis), the position of the head of the animal in space and the direction of his mouth opening will not change. At rotation of the pelvis animal to 180 (rotation of the pelvis on the vertical axis) the position of the head of the rabbit also will not change, as it will make compensatory rotation in the opposite direction. After removing both labyrinths installation reflexes away: when you change the status of an animal in any direction head returns to its original position. However, in contact deprived of labyrinths animal based (for example, with a table) he discovered new reflexes (the so-called reflexes of the body), leading to the same affect that and labyrinth. These reflexes are explained asymmetric irritation of sensitive nerve trunk and extremities that arise under these conditions. The reflexes of the body disappear as the irritation becomes symmetric (for example, when pressed by the Board on the free surface lying animal).
2. Statokinetic reflexes - reflexes caused by active or passive movements. These include labyrinth reflexes caused by the rotation of the body.
If the animal is placed in the radius on a rotating disk so that his head was turned to the periphery, while turning the head and eyes will be rejected in the reverse rotation direction (rotational reaction of the head and eyes), upon termination of rotation of the head and eyes will be rejected in the direction of rotation (serial rotational reaction of the head and eyes). In addition to the rotational reactions, there is a labyrinth of reaction to a simple (non-circular) progressive movement. The group statokinetic reflexes are also numerous reactions on the movement of individual parts of the body, causing them reflexogenic pulses are irritation of the nerves in the muscles of the trunk and extremities. The study labyrinth reflexes in humans have acquired through work baranyi important for diagnostics in neuropathology and otoneurology.
Magnus-Klein reflexes were studied in humans. According to the Minkowski (M Minkowski), they are already expressed in the fetus during fetal life. Clearly they are determined, and the first time after the birth [Schaltenbrand (G. Schaltenbrand)]. Much less they be expressed in adults with intact nervous system. Hoff and childer (N. Hoff, P. Schilder) attributed to him the following reactions: 1) main experience - active or passive rotation of the head to the side at arm's length, and closed (as in all subsequent experiments) eyes entails the rotation of the torso and the deviation of hands in the same direction, the rise of the corresponding hand up and lowering down opposite; 2) a spontaneous reaction lifting - stretched forth his hands slowly rise up, right more often than the left; 3) reaction of divergence described previously Fischer and Wodak - stretched forth his hands at voltage of the sides; 4) reaction of convergence - under the same conditions when bent at the elbows converge; 5) delay provisions - hands outstretched, and one is held horizontally, the other on 60 degrees above or below; after 30 seconds. the examinee should bring your other hand to the first level (horizontal); the job is not always possible, and the hand does not reach the horizontal level.
In the pathology of the reflexes of the regulations may be changed. Research of a number of authors have shown that they are enhanced by damage to the cerebellum: on the affected side identifies the core experience, spontaneous reaction of rise of divergence. Sometimes when damage to the cerebellum reactions and can be perverted. So, basically the experience of rotation of the head can cause a deviation of the upper extremities are not of the same name, and in the opposite direction. The weakening of reflexes Magnus-Klein, as well as their full extinction observed in parkinsonism.
Magnus in the experiment with the defeat of interstitial of the brain, and Rademaker (G. Rademaker) with the defeat of the cerebellum has detected the appearance of so-called reaction of support. She described and failure of the Central nervous system in humans (M. B. Kroll, D. A. Markov and others).
The positive reaction of support: passive extension of the toes leads to a dramatic flattening of the whole lower limb and fixing it in place. Negative reaction of support: passive plantar flexion of the fingers of legs leads to the bend in the knee and hip joints. Positive and negative support reaction can occur in the upper extremities. The symptom described for various locations of the pathological process - with frontal lobe lesions, cerebellum, multiple sclerosis, trochaic, acetone, disease ataxia. Cm. also Reflexes (pathological).