Manganese

Manganese (Manganum, Mn) (as industrial poison) is a chemical element VII groups of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, then. room 25, atomic weight 54,9380. Silvery metal, oxidation becomes reddish color, temperature melting 1260 degrees, the density of 7.2.
Manganese and its compounds are used in metallurgical industry, glass, textile , etc. enter the body in the form of fine particulate matter through the lungs. When melting and welding in air are formed oxides of manganese (IGOs and Mn3O4).
In medical practice, apply the following drugs manganese: potassium permanganate (see) and manganese chloride.
Manganese compounds (oxides and ferromanganese) are strong poisons, affecting the Central nervous system. In addition, pathological changes occur in the liver, lungs, peripheral blood. Production mainly found in chronic poisoning from the prolonged effects on the body of the dust of manganese and its compounds. Dust manganese ore and dustgenerated during the production of alloys with manganese, prolonged exposure may cause chronic lung disease - manganates (see Pneumoconiosis). The symptoms of this disease include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, sputum production. Frequent manifestation of chronic poisoning is a syndrome of manganese of parkinsonism (see), accompanied also a violation of appetite, sleep, feelings of dizziness. In severe cases appears masloobraznyj face, difficulty walking, change of mentality.
Ore containing manganese can cause skin diseases type of dermatitis and chronic eczema.
Prevention. Equipment of all dust-forming units of local mechanical exhaust ventilation, mechanization of dusty processes, sealing equipment, wet cleaning, use a respirator "Lepestok" (see Respirator), and in the presence of indoor smoke, containing manganese compounds,special industrial gas mask. Maximum permissible concentration of compounds of manganese in the air of industrial premises - 0.3 mg/m3.
For all who work with manganese mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations, and persons employed grinding, mixing, procesam manganese and its compounds, shall be subjected to periodic medical examinations once in 3 months; working on welding in confined spaces - once in 6 months; in the extraction of manganese ore, melting of steels and other metals with a high content of manganese - once every 12 months. In the composition of the Commission should be a therapist, neurologist, radiologist, otolaryngologist (if indicated), dermatologist (on indications). Upon detection of even mild symptoms of poisoning to stop further contact with manganese and to appoint a special treatment.

Manganese (Manganum), Mn - the chemical element VII group of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev. Ever since. room 25, at. weight (mass) 54,9381, valency from +2 to +7. The principal mineral - pyrolusite MnO2. Manganese - fragile silver-pink metal; the density of 7.4, temperature 1260 sq°, temperature instrumentation 2152 degrees. Soluble in acids. The air is covered with oxide film that protects the metal from further oxidation. The oxide manganese - MnO and the corresponding ground - Mn(OH)2 form salts with acids M, in most well-soluble in water, for example MnCl2, MnSO4 and other Dioxide - MnO2 Infoterra, is used as an oxidizer and a catalyst in chemical reactions. In the event of fusion MnO2 with alkalis formed manganate - salts of manganese acid N2MnO4. Heptavalent M corresponds to a strong manganese acid H2MnO4, easy to decompose with oxygen. Salts (permanganates are very strong oxidizers. So, KMnO4 oxidizes in the acid, alkaline and neutral media, in medicine it is used as a disinfectant. Manganese and its compounds are used in the production of iron, steel, chemicals, fertilizers, dyeing, getting glazes, enamels and other
Manganese contained in the tissues of plants, animals and humans. Most rich in their bones and liver. M. activates oxidation-reduction processes in tissues. The need in M in children is significantly more than in adults. The lack M. there is a delay in the formation of the skeleton, disrupted the process of ossification. M. activates dipeptidase, arginase, bone alkaline phosphatase, part 1-latinamericancupid. Cm. Micronutrients.
Potassium permanganate - see Potassium permanganate.