Machine-building industry

Machine building industry is a sector of the economy involved in the manufacturing of equipment, vehicles, tractors, agricultural and other machinery. The main workshops in the engineering industry are casting, forging, thermal, mechanical and Assembly.
In foundry process details connected with manufacturing of the necessary forms and fill them molten metal, earth, metal, or chill casting and die casting). In foundries is preparation of materials for melting and load them into furnaces, melting metal, release and fill in forms, preparation of moulding and core of the earth, preparation of forms and rods, knockout products from forms, chipping and cleaning products.
All these processes are accompanied by the emission of dust and toxic and irritant gases (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide and others). When you knockout and cleaning casting arise, noise and vibration. During observation of melting metal and pouring it into shape, workers are exposed to high temperatures and radiant energy. All this has an adverse impact on health of workers, can cause acute and chronic occupational poisoning and diseases (for example, casting fever).
In forge shops main architects of harmful factors are high temperature and infrared radiation, heavy physical activity, high level of noise and vibration impact.
In the shops of thermal or electrolytic treatment of metals main occupational hazards are high temperature infrared radiation and the action of toxic gases and vapors when handling products cyanide baths (see the Electroplating shop).
In the workshops of mechanical processing of metals main adverse factors - noise (including RF), vibration, as well as the possibility of mechanical injury of the worker. Members of cutting fluids mineral oils with prolonged contact with the skin called folliculitis and dermatitis. The maceration of the skin and cause dermatitis used in these workshops solutions of soda ash at concentrations higher than 2%.
In the machine Assembly Department, occupational hazards are the effects on the body aerosol paints (lead oxide red, green, CZK) and solvents; exhaust gases generated during the test engines; action bright light when the electric welding, dust, high noise level.
All these occupational hazards have an adverse effect on health of workers, can cause acute and chronic poisoning and diseases. Therefore, in all shops of machine-building industry takes measures on improvement of the workplace in combination with preventive measures.
Health activities. The fight against occupational hazards goes on the way of improvement and perfection of technological procedures and equipment (for example, the use of automation), and on the ways of improvement of the microclimate workplace (application of supply-and-exhaust ventilation, shielding and water protection working in hot shops, the device exhaust of harmful gases and dust in the place of their formation, reduction of the noise level and so on). In the foundry widely used replacement land liquid quick-drying mixtures is implemented pressure casting and chill casting in metal forms. Sandblasting casting is replaced by hydraulic, hydro-abrasive cleaning with the help spark discharge in a liquid medium. In the forging shop is a translation of furnaces of solid, liquid and gas fuel at the induction electric heating, replacement of steam hammers : hydraulic presses, a decrease in physical activity working through the introduction of mechanization. In the shops of thermal treatment of metals equip cyanide and lead baths shelters with local exhaust of harmful products, special attention is paid to the screening and isolation of the worker from installations with high-frequency currents, introduced measures that increase the safety of all operations in this shop. In the workshops of mechanical processing of metals replacement of oil cooling of components of emulsion or anti-corrosive liquids, not containing toxic substances (mineral oil, soda ash), equipment of machines exhaust ventilation interlocked with the trigger, installation of barriers and protective shields. In mechanical workshops are focused on the local and General ventilation and the equipment of special facilities for the testing of internal combustion engines.
In all shops of machine-building industry needs great attention to personal hygiene of workers, their clothing (see Clothes, protection at work), eye protection (see Goggles, safety), as well as regular prophylactic medical examination organization and dispensaries in plants.
Cm. Hot workshops.

Machine building industry is the aggregate number of sectors (heavy transport machine building, automobile and tractor industry, shipbuilding and mn. other).