Mastoiditis (mastoiditis, from the Greek. mastoeides - mastoid - is an inflammation of pneumatic cells of the mastoid process, exciting mucosa and bone.

Mastoiditis is an acute purulent inflammation of the mastoid cells. The emergence of mastoiditis depends not so much on the nature of the infection, but from the interaction of the body with the virus.
Mastoiditis is more likely to occur as a complication of acute purulent medium otitis for persons with reduced total body resistance, and often at the wrong antibiotic treatment.
Symptoms and course. The appearance of pain in the mastoid 3-4 weeks after the occurrence of acute purulent medium otitis media is a characteristic feature of mastoiditis. Will often have a spontaneous character, are often concerned about the sick at night, amplified when pressed on the top of the mastoid process and planum mastoideum. An important feature of mastoiditis is a narrowing of the external ear canal, caused by the lowering of the rear-upper wall in the bone part, as well as swelling of the outer covers of the mastoid. In advanced cases is formed subperiosteal abscess, preceded by redness and pastoznost skin this area.
Depending on the nature of pneumatization mastoid process and the predominant suppuration of certain groups of cells can develop different forms of mastoiditis. Suppuration of the troupe cells at the root of the zygomatic bone can lead to the formation of the zygomatic bone in front of and above the ear (so-called zygomatic). The dissemination process towards the cellular system of the pyramid of the temporal bone leads to the formation of petrosia (see).
The overall health of the patient mastoiditis is usually bad: there are headaches, insomnia, loss of appetite. The temperature rises to 38.5°, but in many cases may remain low grade. Discharge from the ear grows and becomes dense, pure purulent.
The diagnosis. Diagnosis of mastoiditis in the presence subperiosteal of the abscess is not difficult. The most important diagnostic sign of mastoiditis is the omission of rear-upper wall of the external acoustic meatus and tenderness with pressure on the mastoid process. The hearing is usually reduced. The degree of bone destruction in the mastoid process is set chest x-ray.
Surgical treatment (see Mastoidectomy).

Tuberculosis mastoiditis occurs sometimes when otitis tubercular etiology. Characterized by multiple perforations of the eardrum, poor purulent discharge, reduction of the hearing. Mastoid swollen, but painless when pressed, often paresis of the facial nerve. Bone bone softened, crumble, granulation pale, cheesy weight, liquid pus almost no curtailment. Indications for surgery put with great care.
Syphilis mastoiditis often occurs in the form of periostitis, rarely accompanied by the destruction of bone tissue of the Appendix. Periostitis quickly cured specific means. The operation is performed with a deep lesion process and in severe condition of the patient.
Traumatic mastoiditis is developing due to the damage of bone tissue, bone ear canal with open and closed injury of the temporal bone. For it depends on the location and severity of the damage, the nature of secondary infection. Firearms mastoiditis proceeds more slowly, long; the hearing, as a rule, sharply reduced; the vestibular function is suppressed. This is due to shock or damage to the inner ear. Often develop osteomyelitis of the temporal bone.
The observed sometimes after the air contusion ear Meters long runs, without symptoms. The cellular structure of the process is usually little affected, but this does not prevent complications.