Camomile

camomile
Fig. 62. Camomile (right - floral basket in section).
chamomile bezyazychnaya
Chamomile bezyazychnaya (green).

Camomile, chamomile stripped [Matricaria recutita L. (Matricaria chamomilla L.)] the family of Asteraceae - Asteraceae Dum. - wild and cultivated plant. Generic name (uterine grass) reflects its use in the treatment of female diseases, species - comes from the Greek words chamai - low and mellon - Apple, the smell of flowers like the smell of apples. The active substance of inflorescences are essential oil containing chamazulene. Infusion flower baskets (1 tablespoon brew 1 Cup of boiled water) is used externally and inside (half a glass at the reception) as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic for diarrhea and a spasmolysant with bowel cramps. A similar application has chamomile romashkovaya - Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter.
Camomile - annual plant (30-60 cm in height with highly branched stems. Numerous leaves melkorazmernye, the end of the share of their line. All shoots, Central and side, over the inflorescence is a basket. Marginal flowers have ligulate white, Central - tubular, yellow. Calathidia are small 5-8 mm in diameter. Fruit - flat achene.
The plant easily re-sowing. Grows well on fertilized and damp soils.
Blossoms from the beginning of summer, and since then collect baskets, as flowering every 3 to 4 days, depending on the crop; the collection period lasts 30 to 40 days.
In natural conditions grows on meadows, steppes, often as a weed plant. It is distributed in the South of the European part of the USSR, Ukraine, Moldova, Crimea, the Northern Caucasus, in Siberia. Cultivated in Europe (Hungary, France, Belgium, Germany, Germany and others), the USSR state farms of Lukasprey.
All parts of the plant contain essential oil, glycoside, relaxing smooth muscles, glycoside sweatshop actions, mucus, bitter. In the State Pharmacopoeia included baskets.
Chamomile is one of the popular folk medicinal plants. Apply at cold, abdominal pain, it is very effective in the treatment of female diseases. Flowers use separately or in training camp and as a diaphoretic, carminative, antispasmodic, as a sedative; naruzhno - for poultices, wash, rinse throat and enemas, as a means of a softening, anti-inflammatory in the treatment of abscesses and boils, when fluxes, toothache, etc.
The camomile easily confused with other, similar in appearance from the family of Asteraceae: chamomile is odorless, chamomile maiden, chamomile stinking, even with large Popovica.
Collectors of medicinal plants should be interested only two: camomile, her name is another drug, and chamomile sweet (bezyazychnaya). Other useless twins who collect should not be.
Try to remember the hallmarks need of daisies: the pharmacy and bezyazichniy bed inflorescences convex cone. If its cut - inside the cavity. The rest of daisies bed inflorescences without cavity. There are other signs that make it easy to distinguish one Daisy from another, but this feature is the main.
Where there wastelands and fallow lands, there are sure to find a camomile. It grows in court yard, on street, on the roadsides. Not afraid heavily embossed places where livestock graze. Large thickets occurs in the South of the European part of the USSR, in steppe zones of Ukraine, Moldova, Crimea and the Northern Caucasus, it is possible to meet and in some southern regions of Siberia.
Collect the camomile manually browsing from the basket, or enjoy special metal ridges, which otesyvajut baskets. There are also special scissors with an attached bag. To collect necessary at certain times, when ligulate white flowers are arranged horizontally. Miss a period, and the resulting fruits are easily showered with fruitlets.
Dry carefully, in order flowers't showered. Fewer still uncultivated land, reduced stocks of chamomile. Therefore, as her substitute collect the sweet Daisy (chamomile bezyazychnaya, or green). Born this camomile from North America. We were hit in the last century, together with the cargo on the ship. Daisy seemed so unusual that it showed in the Botanical garden in St. Petersburg. Why, Daisy, and without white reeds around the flower, flower basket does not yellow, and green. Then she broke the fence of the garden, and began a triumphal procession, green chamomile. Got to Siberia, possibly by rail cargo, came to Kamchatka.
Collect the Daisy in the beginning of flowering, while the receptacle is not naked and baskets not crumble under pressure. To break or cut baskets need at the base. The raw material is put in a container loosely, and for drying spread a thin layer.
To fully meet the demand in the camomile, it started to grow up on plantations of the state farms. Both chamomile is used for pain in the gut, and as a diaphoretic and sedatives, for poultices, tools. As anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and analgesic use chamomile for rinsing of the mouth and throat. Chamomile flowers used in the form of infusion or in complex training camp.
Although camomile occurs almost everywhere, gathered at the site and larger dushistye.
To grow chamomile is not difficult. It perfectly reproduces by seeds differs simplicity, endure the vagaries of the weather, gives a bountiful harvests. Demanding only to light Yes loose, well-prepared soil.
For 25-30 days before spring or late autumn sowing the soil at the site dug over to a depth of 20 - 25 cm, and then for 10-12 days remove weed vegetation, harrowing the soil and rolled down her so caught up moisture over the seeds. Digging make organic and mineral fertilizers, and together with the seeds in the garden pour superphosphate (3-4 g / m2). Podzemnyi sowing produce superficially, the spring to a depth of 1 to 1.5 see Aisle leave 45 see
Seedlings should be protected from weeds, but weeding should be carefully: covered by the earth plants die. Grown up they are not already suffering from weeds and pests on chamomile not attack.
From the time of sowing before flowering takes about two months. And though camomile - annual plant, well prepared and well-fertilized soil crop can be removed 3-4 years in a row, as it perfectly reproduces self-sowing.
For the seeds of the wild camomile is necessary to go in late July - early August, when most of inflorescences took peg-shaped form, and the regional white flowers fell down. Inflorescence is collected and dried.