Furniture

In shape, size, design, material, from which it is made, the furniture can be very diverse, but all it must meet the following requirements:
1) design, size and weight - biological indicators of human (body size, and comfortable position of the person on production, in the hospital or at rest);
2) hygienic requirements to be available cleaning wet, to withstand the usual methods of disinfection; not contribute to the accumulation or reproduction of parasites; not to darken the room, expel as possible of air from the room.
Furniture for residential and public buildings. Sofas (various types), beds should have the size, slightly higher than the length of the body (190-200 cm), width of 60-80 cm, height above the floor of 35-40 cm For-height tables (table, coffee and so on) is set to the fact of the short duration of use and the relative freedom poses sitting at the tables. Great demands are made to the tables for writing practice (see the Misspelling)that a sitting behind them did not develop phenomena scoliosis of the spine and fatigue in the spinal muscles.
Seat depth of chairs must provide sufficient support to the body and to be 40-45 cm (with the same width). Seat height from the floor - not less than 45-50 see Furniture for storing clothes, utensils, books, food must meet the hygienic requirements of a General nature.
Production furniture is very diverse, depending on working conditions. Its quality is determined by the impact on productivity, fatigue, health workers. Working furniture should be a good support for the body, to relieve muscle static tension, help uniform distribution of muscular effort of the trunk, to ensure the least fatigue.
Edges and the surface of the furniture should be of smooth, rounded. To work chairs additional demands related to the peculiarity of the production environment: mobility along the workplace, rotation around the axis, creating support for the forearms and footrest to reduce fatigue of legs, etc.
It is also essential rational device tables, benches and other furniture.
Children's furniture, must meet the age characteristics of the child's body and to be at the same time one of the means of raising a child. Therefore, children's furniture imposed additional requirements, taking into account the physiological characteristics of the child (Fig).
Growth is an indicator in the determination of the size of furniture for different age groups of children. As a result of mass surveys designed tables of furniture for children and teenagers, in which is reflected the size of the furniture, age-appropriate.
However, sometimes in the same age group may be the children of two pears growth.
Each size of children's furniture designed for children with a difference growth in 10 see Baby furniture you want to give a smooth surface, hygienic cover, rounded edges. Color should be made in light, soothing colours.
children's furniture

Children's furniture: 1 bed with variable length; 2 - the changing table; 3 - toddler bed; 4 - dressing table; 5 - table for feeding; 6 - Manege; 7 - children's highchair (in different locations); 8 - barrier; 9 - hill-ladder; 10 - climbing wall; 11 - hour for pots; 12 - clothes hanger; 13 - twin-tables; 14 and 15 - chairs.

Furniture. Accordingly hygienic standards furniture should differ convenient size and structure, to be easy to clean.
In private life and in public buildings suitable built and sectional furniture. For dormitories and small-sized apartments recommended a combined Meters part of M direct contact with the body,- of the seats and backs of chairs and stools, table-tops - you need manufacture from materials of low heat conductivity. A very important and promising such coatings M (plastic, resistant paints and varnishes, which you can wash your Feet in warm water and a mild disinfectant.
Working M. should provide a convenient, least tiring position in accordance with the requirements of physiology of labour.
The size of such furniture must meet the anatomical dimensions and proportions of the body. Design of M must reduce muscle tension, bearing the weight of a body, to facilitate the implementation of technological operations. For working sitting of special significance is the back of a chair, as it carries a part of the weight of the trunk, making unloaded spinal muscles. Comfortable armrests, reducing static tension of the muscles of the forearm. To increase the area of support surface of the seat should be profiled on the form of the contacting parts of the body. Use chairs with lifting (screw) the seat and moving in horizontal and vertical directions back to sitting could adjust the chair to your growth, addition, to take the most rational position.
Children's furniture should strictly conform to the dimensions and proportions of the body of children. In the USSR adopted twelve rooms Meters for children.
For toddlers and preschool age furniture is made accordingly to the seven rooms (see table that lists the dimensions of child M for preschoolers). The smallest number of school Meters (see the Desk) is the sixth room. Each size M is designed for children with a difference growth in 10 cm (sizes desks represented in senior "Desk"). To satisfy all children furniture, corresponding to growth that is necessary two or three rooms of furniture. Convenient M variable sizes (Fig. 1). Baby M is necessary to give a smooth surface, hygienic cover, rounded edges. Baby bed should have a smooth, tightly stretched grid, flat hard mattress. For infants of the first months of life comfortable high bed with low sides (Fig. 2); for children aged 5-6 months to one and a half years is higher barrier and bed height is reduced; a further barrier is removed. To day dream of children in the older group of nursery and kindergarten allowed to use folding beds with tightly stretched canvas or light, folding in packs, wooden beds with bed of perforated the plywood. For equipment group rooms infants need changing and dressing tables (Fig. 3 and 4), double, triple table for feeding of children (Fig. 5), Manezh for children stay during wakefulness (Fig. 6). In home conditions as a playpen can be used crib with high side walls, which removed bedding. For feeding infants convenient high chair (Fig. 7), which can be converted into a children's table with a chair. In the slide groups manger for the development of movements children need barriers (Fig. 8), Gorki-stairs (Fig. 9); for older children is also useful gymnastic climbing frames (Fig. 10). In group rooms is necessary shelves and cabinets for toys, baby armchair and chairs, sofas, four-, six-seat tables. In free areas are set hours for pots (Fig. 11), open towel racks. In razdevalka younger groups arrange racks with jacks for blankets and linen, and in senior groups - individual lockers for top dress with offices for hats and shoes (Fig. 12). In kindergarten, use the same set of furniture larger. In older groups for a comfortable training children and opportunities correct lighting of workplaces recommended double the tables (Fig. 13), chairs (Fig. 14 and 15). Colouring of children's furniture should be made in light, restful colors (beige, light green, and so on). It is desirable that the home M child as it grows can be changed in size.
Description of hospital Meters - see the Hospital.

Dimensions (cm) of the main types of furniture for preschoolers
(according to M. I. Korsunsky and the Institute of hygiene of children and teenagers of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR)
the furniture for preschool children
* Width bench tables 70-75 see