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Functional disorders and their morphological manifestations in mechanical asphyxia

  • General morphological manifestations (the symptoms) mechanical asphyxia
  • Insufficient oxygen in the blood from the air or violation of its utilization in the organism causing oxygen starvation.
    Oxygen starvation of organs and tissues of oxygen, up to a full stop of oxygen in the body, is determined by the term "hypoxia".
    Hypoxia is one of the most important pathogenetic and teratogenic factors for different diseases and extreme States and therefore is a universal problem of medicine. Now it is accepted to distinguish at least 6 types of hypoxia, developing various reasons:
    1) exogenous hypoxia occurs due to the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in the air we breathe;
    2) respiratory hypoxia develops due to respiratory diseases, and more - from mechanical obstacles;
    3) circulatory - arises because of hemodynamics, as a rule, in connection with diseases of cardiovascular system;
    4) gemicheskaja - is a consequence of the reduction of oxygen capacity of the blood, excessive blood loss, blood diseases, or the siege of hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin and others;
    5) tissue - occurs because of a violation of the process of biological oxidation, what is most striking when exposed to cyanide compounds;
    6) mixed hypoxia occurs most frequently as a result of a combination of the above-mentioned pathogenic mechanisms.
    The pace of development of hypoxia are divided into acute, developing and leading to death within seconds or minutes, subacute (a few hours), chronic, lasting for months or even years. In forensic practice is most common acute respiratory hypoxia resulting from mechanical obstacles that have long received the name of mechanical asphyxia.
    Most often, mechanical obstruction to breathing arise from external factors, but in some cases they can be caused by diseases (diphtheria, laryngeal edema, spasm of the glottis or bronchi, pressing or covering the respiratory tract tumor and others).
    Based on the nature of the mechanical factors that create an obstacle for breathing and peculiarities of their impact, there are different types of mechanical asphyxia.
    Asphyxia caused by compression of: 1) strangulate - asphyxia, caused by compression of the neck (hanging, udivlenie loop, udivlenie hands); 2) compression asphyxia (caused by compression of the chest and abdomen).
    Asphyxia from the close breathing holes and ways: 1) obturator (from the closing holes mouth and nose, closing respiratory foreign bodies; from the close of the respiratory tract fluid when the drowning); 2) suction - from the close of the respiratory tract food and vomit blood.
    In forensic practice in the first place on the frequency is asphyxia caused by compression of the neck loop or hands, the other kinds of asphyxia occur much less frequently.