Medical education

Medical education - a system of medical personnel training, providing the study of General and special disciplines, and also mastering necessary practical skills. Medical education in the USSR is to prepare qualified specialists, educated in the spirit of high morality and humanism. The development of medical education in the USSR is determined by the needs of the country in honey. frames and is planned state character; it is closely related to the forefront of Soviet medical science, based on Marxist-Leninist methodology and practice of Soviet health care.

Medical education - a system of medical personnel training, providing the study special and General educational disciplines, as well as acquiring practical skills necessary for the doctor or medical worker. Medical education in the USSR " is planned state character; its development is determined by the needs of the country for medical personnel; it is closely related to the forefront of Soviet science and practice of Soviet health services (see Health, Medicine).
In 1965, in the USSR there were 88 medical institutes and medical faculties at the universities which were attended by more than 220 thousand students (table. 1). USSR took the first place in the world in terms of availability of doctors, and some Federal Republic surpass by this indicator, the advanced capitalist countries several times.
In accordance with the rules of admission to medical universities are enlisted persons in the age of 35 who have completed General or special secondary education. All applicants to medical universities undergo acceptance testing on Russian (composition), physics and chemistry. Subjects are physics and chemistry. About 80% of all students are provided by the state scholarship. The overwhelming share of nonresident students is provided with places in student hostels. In a number of medical institutions to the inhabitants of the Far North and some national remote areas created boarding schools with preparatory departments. In the period of studying at the departments and the Institute students living in boarding passes on provision of the state.
Medical schools (table. 2) are composed of one to eight faculties - General, pediatric, health, dental, pharmaceutical and other
In 1959, the number of medical schools were created the evening Department and the departments for the training of doctors nurses, combining study with work. The training work at the evening faculty is conducted only in the period of studying of scientific disciplines. With transition to study the clinical disciplines, students evening departments and faculties are transferred to the system of full-time study. In addition to formal training, is carried out by correspondence training of pharmacists from the number of persons with complete secondary pharmaceutical education. Held in absentia-full-time training of doctors-stomatologists from the number of dentists has not justified itself, and these sections are rolled up.
For the last years opened new faculties: medical-biological when the 2nd Moscow medical Institute. Pirogov and biophysical at Kaunas medical Institute. These faculties train specialists biochemists, biophysicists, which can work in the departments of medical universities and laboratories of research institutes.
In some medical institutions have the faculties for advanced training of physicians.
Management of activity of all departments and clinics of medical schools (educational, methodical, research, medical and other) is carried out by the rectors of the institutes. When the rector's office established a special body - the Council of the Institute (Department), which examined all the main issues in the activities of the University. The Council consists of the rector, Vice-rectors, deans, representatives of party and public organizations, heads of departments and professors of the Institute. In medical universities with the right to confer academic degrees, organized by the Scientific Council. In institutions where the right to confer academic degrees granted to the faculties are also academic councils of the faculties.
Medical schools are in the state budget and work on the Charter, training plans and programs approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR and the Ministry of higher and secondary special education of the USSR. The Ministry of health also provides General guidance on organizational and educational work. It defines long-term planning of the network of educational institutions and the expected number of students.
In medical universities have the following staff positions of teaching staff: head of Department, Professor of the Department, associate Professor, assistant lecturer (lecturer) in the Department. The number of the teaching staff of the University is determined by the list of staff of the Institute, the number of students in it students at the rate of one unit of the teaching staff at 8-10 students. The number of departments of medical school is determined by the curriculum. The positions of the teaching staff is made by the competition. These competitions are held every five years.
For the preparation of the teaching staff there are the following system: the graduate school with a separation from work (full-time) and without discontinuing work (part-time); one-year postgraduate course, the target postgraduate study, clinical residency, which is used for preparation of the qualified experts in all clinical specialties for medical institutions. A student must pass an exam candidate minimum and defend a thesis on the scientific degree of candidate of Sciences.
To ensure the high quality of the educational process, development of students ' skills of independent work and skill to apply the received knowledge provides for the following forms of educational work: lectures, independent work of students in laboratories, hospitals, classrooms and libraries, practical training in clinics, laboratories, seminars, course work under the guidance of professors and lecturers, practical training in clinics, hospitals, laboratories, and so on, consult professors, associate professors and assistants, educational excursions. Academic year is divided into autumn and spring semesters, each of which ends with an examination session.
In medical universities universally accepted exchange rate system classes. All courses are distributed in a certain sequence of courses and semester, and without successful completion of the study of all subjects of this course, the student shall be transferred to the next course. The curriculum of the first 5 semesters (2.5 years of study treatment, pediatric and sanitary faculties), providing theoretical training of students in General are almost the same as in the list and volume of studied disciplines, with minor deviations depending on the profile of the faculty. The curriculum of these semesters at the dental faculty has a narrower scope of teaching the same subjects. On the 3rd course begins teaching the first clinical disciplines - propedeutics of internal diseases and surgery, as well as in all faculties begins training and on some of the core disciplines.
For clinical training characteristic principle of combination of profound theoretical training with versatile skills of the student in each of the clinical disciplines. In clinics primary method of work of students is the treatment of patients with subsequent protection of academic records. In the process of supervision of students independently carry out all necessary clinical diagnostic research, participate in operations, pathoanatomical dissection and conferences.
As the main link of the Soviet health system is an outpatient service, a special place in the clinical training of students honey. institutions take outpatient training. In all clinical departments of outpatient training is given from 25 to 50% of training time.
Curricula and programs are constantly being improved. Great attention is paid to the teaching of philosophy and scientific atheism, introduced a number of new disciplines: in a biology - General genetics, in the course of Microbiology - Virology and immunology, propedeutics of internal diseases - special course of diagnostic, medical and medical equipment, in the course of nervous diseases - medical genetics, in the course of psychiatry and medical psychology; introduction of a new course in Biophysics.
Training of specialists in the pharmaceutical faculties is carried out with special curricula, which, in addition to special disciplines and social Sciences, the great attention is given chemical disciplines. A great place in the training of physicians and pharmacists is industrial and educational practice.
Graduated from medical Institute is the student who fully curriculum, passed all the tests and examinations stipulated by the curriculum and passed the state examinations. After graduation young
experts sent to work according to the state plan of distribution. They issued certificate, and after years of work, - diploma in the view of the production characteristics of employment.
Teams of medical institutions, which included scientists in various fields, in addition to the training of doctors, dentists and pharmacists, conduct greater research work. Many of the Department are major research centers and have special problems laboratory. In recent years many large medical universities are open Central research laboratory. All institutions have a student scientific society. A member of the society can be every student who successfully combine their studies with lessons in scientific circles. Almost annually in Moscow and other cities is organized the scientific conference where students present their scientific reports.
Professors and lecturers of higher educational institutions are of great assistance to the health authorities, conducting organizational and Advisory work, led by specialization and improvement of doctors. Under the guidance of the chairs of many practitioners conduct scientific research.
In institutions is a large political-educational work with students. Ideological education of students is carried out primarily in the process of educational work at each Department, especially in the departments of social Sciences, as well as in extra-curricular time. Among the students of medical universities are widely spread, sports, Amateur art, tourism. Regularly organized all-Union and Republican student games. Many institutions have a tourist centres and camps for students.
Medical students have a wide international connections. In medical institutions of the USSR trained many students from different countries of Europe, Asia and Africa; the group of Soviet students study abroad.
After the great October socialist revolution manual secondary medical education was carried out by the national health Committee. During the civil war he organized a number of short courses in the system of national health Committee and the Military-medical administration prepared experts for the needs of the red Army, epidemics, maternity and infancy, health education, etc., In 1922, middle medical educational institutions were at the disposal of Gladiator RSFSR people's Commissariat. In this period began to be established midwifery school, school nurses nursing, sisters on the protection of motherhood and infancy and courses on retraining of regimental medical assistants. In 1926 at the II all-Russian conference on nursing education was adopted the decision about creation instead of Skoda colleges preparing medical staff of all categories.

In order to increase the responsibility of the health authorities for the preparation of medical personnel and implementation of communication between academic work and practical activities of medical institutions in 1930 manual secondary medical education was again transferred to narkomzdrav Union republics. At the same time embarked on a narrow specialization. In 1932, the technical schools trained specialists on 13 profiles. For the first time started training of rentgenotechnika, technicians, assistants sanitary doctors. In this period began to open evening and correspondence departments. Up to 1936 the system of training of nurses in the Union republics was different as to profiles of training and the training time.
A unified system of medical education in the USSR was first defined by the resolution of Council of people's Commissars of the USSR from 8.IX.1936, "About preparation of secondary medical, dental and pharmaceutical staff". Medical colleges were reorganized into school to train paramedics, pharmacists, dentists, midwifery schools, medical school and nursery nurses and courses of medical laboratory assistants and dental technicians. In the future the average Maltese order was undergoing repeated reorganizations, related to the problems of development of a network of medical institutions and improvement of the medical service of the population. Especially great changes were made in the years of the great Patriotic war, when increased the value of the average medical personnel and increased need in their preparation. During this period all medical schools started a short period of training, a large number of nurses prepared courses red cross and red Crescent societies.
Since 1954, takes measures on unification of the middle M. O. All secondary medical schools were called medical the schools. Ordered terms of training (table. 3).
In accordance with the demand of medical institutions in personnel training wider profile: feldshers, midwives, medical assistants, nurses, medical technicians, nurses for children's medical institutions, pharmacists, dentists, dental technicians, technicians for installation, repair and operation of x-ray and electromedical equipment. Has undergone major processing all programs. In the new curricula has increased the number of hours to study the subject in General and special cycles and the passage of training and work experience, etc.
The network of secondary medical schools are evenly distributed on the territory of the Soviet Union. Each Union and Autonomous Republic, oblast and region currently provided with middle medical personnel mainly from editions of students in their nursing schools. In order to expand the training of nurses and approximation of their preparation to the place of the subsequent work in the cities, do not have medical schools, is allowed in larger hospitals to open branches medical schools.
Cm. Medical personnel, Scientific research institutes.