Melanosis

Melanosis (synonym of melanopathia) is excessive accumulation in the skin, organs and tissues of the pigment melanin. Melanosis may be physiological (at the races with a dark color the skin when exposed to sunlight, as well as in pregnancy), and pathological, i.e. melanin excessively delayed where he usually is normal, and appears in those organs where usually it is not observed (mucous membranes, the kidneys, the brain).
Causes of melanosis studied enough. Have the value of heredity and endocrine disorders: the insufficiency of the adrenal cortex (see Addison's disease), violation of developing melanophores hormone by the pituitary gland, a change in the function of sexual glands and avitaminosis - pellagra (see), scurvy (see).
Pathological melanosis may be congenital or acquired. To congenital melanosis include: 1) rare reticular progressive melanosis (see Pigmentosum pigment), which is associated with increased sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays; 2) excessive melanoblasts that occur in newborns up to 1 month of life, with the tumor nature and likely associated with metastasis through the placenta malignant melanoma, which is the mother. Appears as a dark pigmentation of the skin of the newborn; deposition of melanin are also observed in the nuclei of nerve cells and in the substance of the brain. Acquired melanosis diffuse - often affects the skin (see Pigmentation), focal - internal organs, especially the intestine (at chronic locks).
Treatment: hormone therapy, vitamin C.

Melanosis (from the Greek. melas, melanos - dark, black; synonymous with melanopathia) - excessive accumulation in the body of the pigment melanin.
Melanosis may be physiological (in persons of certain races and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays) and pathological. Pathological (excessive accumulation of melanin can be observed in organs where he usually has (eyes, the skin; printing. Fig. 4), and where he normally does not occur [meninges, the mucous membranes (printing. Fig. 1), brain substance].

melanosis esophageal
Fig. 1. Melanosis esophagus

The role of the regulator in the formation of melanin (see) belongs to the sympathetic nervous system, suppressive function of melanoblasts, and glands of internal secretion by the pituitary and adrenal glands. The main reason for the development of melanosis are adrenocortical insufficiency of the adrenal glands and the breach of the production by the pituitary gland melanophores hormone. The mechanism of action melanophores hormone is that it is able to cause dispersion of black pigment granules in melanophores skin.
Melanosis may be congenital or acquired. To congenital melanosis is so-called the reticular progressing M (melanosis reticularis; synonym: melanosis Peak, xeroderma pigmentosum, a malignant apelidos). The main symptoms - spotted skin pigmentation with melanophores in the upper part of the dermis, hyperkeratosis and swelling of the dermis. The development of this disease is associated with Hyper-sensibilization of the skin to ultraviolet rays. To congenital melanosis owned and excessive melanoblasts - disease blastomycosis nature. Occurs in newborns or children under 1 month of life than is due to the assumption of dialcentral metastases of malignant melanoma, had mothers. Appears as a dark pigmentation of the skin. Histologically exposes the accumulation of newuse - and melanotropin cells, rich pigment. The deposition of boulders pigment is also observed in mild cerebral membranes and in the substance of the brain (in the olives, on the base of the brain in gear nuclei in the thalamus and the hippocampus). Especially a lot of pigment in the nuclei of nerve cells, in which as it accumulates come degenerative changes.
Acquired melanosis can be focal (localized) and diffuse (generalized). The most common acquired M. skin. An example of visceral focal Meters can be M intestines. He is seen predominantly in patients with partial intestinal obstruction or chronic constipation. The process is localized in ileo-secalinum Department, rectum and sigmoid colon. The mucous membrane is dark brown or black color. In stroma its cells are in abundance in the cytoplasm containing grain pigment (Fig) from yellow-grey to brown-black. The pigment is referred to the group of melanin, and explain the origin of its effect on cells enzymes secreted by bacteria in the intestinal lumen. Focal melanosis can be associated with a change in the function of sexual glands (chloasma during pregnancy and pigmentation of the nipples of the Breasts). Increased melanin content in the body is also observed at avitaminosis: the pellagra, scurvy.
Diffuse melanosis associated with endocrine disorders and observed in edisonova disease.