Epidemic meningitis

Meningitis is a serious disease, the essence of which is the inflammation of the meninges. There are nagnoenie (serous and purulent meningitis. The first is primarily caused by a virus, the second - various microbes.
The causative agent of epidemic purulent meningitis is the meningococcus, having a form of tiny, arranged in pairs of balls. It is found in the mucous membranes of the nose and pharynx, which penetrates into the cranial cavity in the cerebral membranes. The name "epidemic" given this form of purulent meningitis due to its high gain popularity and prone to spreading.
The patient is contagious for all disease until you are released from pathogen - usually around 3-4 weeks. The most common sources of infection are sick lightest forms of infection and bakterionositeli both children and adults. The number of holders in many tens of times exceeds the number of patients. With particular frequency carriers are identified in the environment of the patient. Infection occurs mainly through airborne droplets. The most susceptible to this disease children: under 5 years of age account for about 70%, and in infancy up to 50% of all diseases.
The disease develops a high fever, severe headaches, frequent vomiting, increased sensitivity and irritability of the child. It is often stated disorder of consciousness: the state as if oglushennosti, delirium; in young children often have seizures. Characteristic posture of the child is lying on the side with head thrown back and tightened to the stomach feet. An important sign of tension zaznacanych muscles, which is lying on his back patient can not bend his head so that his chin touched his chest. All signs of the disease every day grow rapidly, rapidly deteriorating and General condition of the patient.
Compared to many other infections meningitis occurs much less frequently, but the gravity (especially in infants) he may be one of the first places. In the past, mortality at epidemic meningitis was very high, and among the survivors was observed frequent persistent changes from the nervous system; headaches dropsy, the damage of the optic nerve, deafness, etc., In our time, with early active treatment frequency of deaths and serious complications has decreased sharply.
Treatment of patients with meningitis should be done, of course, in the hospital. It uses a range of different activities, of which the most important is the introduction of penicillin in large doses. Treatment success is in direct proportion to how early it is started, and this in turn is due to the earliest possible medical care and diagnosis of the disease.
For early and accurate diagnosis it is necessary to examine the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture. Already in the early stage of the disease in this fluid is observed characteristic changes; in it you can find and pathogen-meningococcus. Often it is the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid decide on the correct treatment tactics. Some parents oppose this diagnostic manipulations, considering it dangerous. This fear is based on a false view of conducting a lumbar puncture: I think when the needle hits the tissue of the spinal cord. Actually puncture needle penetrates into the spinal canal filled with fluid that bathes the spinal cord and the branching roots spinal nerves.
To prevent the spread of infection the patient should immediately be hospitalized. Its isolation is continued until complete recovery and exemption of the pathogen.
Children and adults to communicate with patients, are not allowed in children's institutions without preliminary survey on hosting, and at impossibility of him - until the 7th day after the isolation of the patient.
All communicate with patients parties and identified bakterionositeli recommended to take in a few days sulfa drugs. Reviews on the effectiveness of this preventive measures contradictory. In any case it is not radical. In the room where there was a patient, after his isolation, disinfection is carried out.