Meningitis

Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges. The nature of inflammation meningitis are festering and serous. Pathogens of purulent meningitis are meningococci of Weichselbaum, pneumococci, Bacillus Afanasyeva - Pfeifer, streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, literally and other germs. Describes fungal purulent meningitis. Serous meningitis are caused usually by a virus.
Development of the disease meningitis can be primary or secondary. At primary meningitis meninges are affected primarily, without connection with the previous disease. A primary example of purulent meningitis is epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. Secondary meningitis most often occur on the background of other diseases. An example of secondary purulent meningitis is otogenny meningitis, when purulent process in the temporal bone (acute and chronic otitis, labyrinthitis) enters the cavity of the skull on the mater.
Meningitis is characterized by quite clear clinical picture of the disease. Complex characteristic symptoms of meningitis is meningeal syndrome.


Technique of determination of the symptoms of meningitis (top to bottom): a symptom of Cernica: top symptom Brudzinskogo; lower symptom Brudzinskogo.

In meningeal syndrome includes a number of symptoms. Headache is the most constant symptom. Usually it is spilled, sometimes the pain is more sharply expressed in the neck or forehead. Vomiting are repetitive in nature, often accompanied by headache, nausea sometimes does not happen. Headache and vomiting evidence of increased intracranial pressure and irritation of the meninges. The rigidity of the neck - the tension of the neck muscles when you try exploring bend patient head forward (Fig.). When the rigidity of the neck head is thrown back, any attempt to bring his head from it's position is accompanied by a sharp pain.
Early and very important symptom of meningitis is a symptom of Cernica: the patient lying on your back, bend your leg at right angle in the hip and knee joints, and then try completely straighten her in the knee joint. If the pain and reflex contraction of the lower leg flexor preventing the extension (Fig). The newborn symptom of Cernica is physiological and lasts up to 3 months; he caused peculiar distribution of muscle tone, is not accompanied by pain and it is only in appearance to the true symptom of Cernica.
Top symptom Brudzinskogo is bent legs and pulling them to his stomach with a sharp passive bending the head, at the same time can climb the hand bent at the elbow joints. Lower symptom Brudzinskogo is that passive bend one leg at the knee and hip joints other leg also bends (figure). Infants often stated voltage large fontanel and positive symptom Lesage (when raising a child under the arms he pressed to his stomach feet).
In children of early age meningeal symptoms may occur without inflammatory changes of the meninges (see Meningismus)so in the clinical picture of meningeal symptoms is not yet a proof of meningitis. The definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of the characteristic changes in the spinal fluid.
Usually, meningitis means an inflammation of the soft meninges, so a more appropriate name - meningitis. Inflammation of the Dura is called pachymeningitis.

Meningitis (meningitis; from the Greek. meninx, meninges brain membrane) - inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation of the Pia mater is called leptomeningitis; inflammation of the Dura - pachymeningitis (see).
The causative agent of acute Meters can be any pathogen (tubercle Bacillus and Staphylococcus, diplodock Friedlander). Meningococcal disease of Weichselbaum and pneumococcus have specific tropism for mild brain membranes. M. can also occur with influenza, typhoid fever, brucellosis, tularemia. Described serous M, caused by a filterable virus, and some special pathogens (actinomycetoma, Toxoplasma and others). Downstream there are acute, subacute and chronic M. M. Acute divided into purulent and serous.

  • Meningeal syndrome
  • Purulent meningitis
  • Otogenny meningitis
  • Meningitis, caused by the special pathogens
  • literally
  • leptospiras
  • the coccidia
  • torolni
  • candidiasis
  • Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis
  • Secondary purulent meningitis

  • Serous meningitis

  • Acute serous meningitis epidemic parotiditis
  • TB meningitis
  • Syphilitic meningitis
  • Pachymeningitis