Mercaptans (synonym tosporte) - derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which an atom of hydrogen is replaced sulfhydryl group - SH. The General formula R-SH (for example, C2H5SH - ethyl mercaptan).
Lowest mercaptans - volatile liquids, not dissolve in water, soluble in alkalies with the formation of mercaptides (hydrogen SH-group is replaced by metal)form mercaptide also with ions of heavy metals; air oxidized into disulfides. Mercaptans are formed by the decay of proteins and have a sharp disgusting smell (rotten cabbage), perceptible at very low concentration of mercaptans in the air.
Mercaptans are found in the air of enterprises in the production of cellulose, recycling sulphurous oil, when using flammable gases. Mercaptans mingle not with the smell of illuminating gas for the rapid detection of leaks, used in the pharmaceutical industry in the manufacture of antidotes.
The toxic effect of mercaptans similar to the action of hydrogen sulphide (see). They enter the body through the respiratory system and skin. In very small concentrations, can cause headache, nausea, vomiting. In high concentrations affect the Central nervous system, causing convulsions, paralysis, collapse; death from respiratory arrest. In the body mercaptans are transformed into sulphates and excreted in the urine.
First aid for poisoning mercaptans: you must remove patient to fresh air, keep calm, to give to breathe oxygen (5% carbon dioxide). If breathing has stopped - artificial respiration (see). Intravenously or intramuscularly - lobeline (0.5 ml of 1% solution). With a sharp decrease in blood pressure subcutaneously: caffeine-benzoate sodium (10% solution 1-2 ml), mezaton (1% solution of 1 ml), epinephrine (0.1% solution of 1 ml).
Prevention of poisoning: the use of filtering gas mask, use of protective clothing, rubber gloves. After working shower and change of clothes. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of ethyl mercaptan in the air of working premises - 0.001 mg/l (1 mg/m3).

Mercaptans (thiols, tosporte) - one-deputizing organic derivatives of hydrogen sulfide General formula RSH. In nature there are mainly products of decay of protein. Highly volatile substances with extremely unpleasant smell. Therefore, for the detection of gas leaks in residential areas to natural gas, which has no smell, mixed into a negligible number of itamerenkatu.
Get mercaptans partial alkylation of hydrogen sulfide.
C2H5Br + NaSH → C2H5SH + NaBr.
There is also a way of getting them out of alcohols by replacing alcohol group sulfhydryl (SH). Mercaptans dissolve in water solutions caustic alkalis with the formation of salt - mercaptide, which are formed also at action on mercaptans oxides of heavy metals (Hg, Pb and others).
Mercury derivative flour is used for identification of M. Some of complex natural compounds (thiol compounds containing mercaptopropyl, used as antidotes (see Antidote), and in the treatment of radiation sickness (see).