Special events for poisoning

In the list of lists poisons, toxins which are found most often, the symptoms of poisoning and treatment. The link " see" noted the names of poisons, placed in the same list (links to relevant articles of me italics).


1. Nitric acid see strong Acid.
2. Alcohol methyl (synonym.: methanol, wood alcohol). Symptoms. Dizziness, weakness, headache, nausea and vomiting. It is characteristic of the early impaired vision with a relatively rapid onset of blindness. Intoxication is usually absent. Develops acidosis. Patients are restless, then gradually fall into a coma. Pupils dilated, weak reaction of their birth. The drop in body temperature. The skin is cold. Tachycardia. Lowering blood pressure. Involuntary discharge of urine and feces. Death may occur with symptoms of respiratory failure and cardiac activity. The prognosis of view should be made very carefully. Treatment. Washing stomach. The introduction of large amounts of fluid (drinking plenty of fluids and parenteral). A solution of sodium bicarbonate orally and intravenously until neutral or slightly alkaline reaction urine. In a coma - analeptics (see ethyl Alcohol). When visually impaired advice and treatment by an ophthalmologist. For group use of methyl alcohol should be taken under medical surveillance of all was using.
3. The ethyl alcohol (synonym: ethanol, alcohol). Symptoms. In severe cases, more or less deep coma. The body temperature is lowered. The skin is cold, sticky. Face hyperemic or cyanothece. Tendon and periosteal reflexes are absent. Kongungualno reflex and the reaction of pupils on light, in most cases stored. Vomiting, involuntary urination and defecation. Breathing becomes shallow, sometimes takes on the character Cheyne-Stokes. Tachycardia, arterial pressure is low. Aspiration pneumonia. May develop pulmonary edema. Death occurs from respiratory failure and cardiac activity. When examining seriously poisoned should be borne in mind the possibility of simultaneous injury, especially of the skull. Treatment. Washing stomach. The fresh air. Inhalation liquid ammonia. Inside 5-10 drops of liquid ammonia with water. When blood person is high the position of the head and the ice on the head. When events excitation - enema of chloral hydrate, subcutaneous morphine solution. A warm bath with subsequent cold douche head. Due to the decrease of reserve alkalinity of the blood, intravenous 300 - 500 ml of 4% solution of sodium bicarbonate. In severe cases shown analeptiki, as in the poisoning drugs: strychnine, kordiamin, korazol; if areflexia - bemegride (see Hypnotics means barbituric number). When pulmonary edema - intravenous strofantin, inhaling oxygen with alcohol vapor. For suspected pneumonia antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin).
4. Amytal sodium (synonym of barbanel) see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
5. Antipetrol (dichloroethane, chloride ethylene). Symptoms. A typical two-phase action. First symptoms of drug effects: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting. Hyperemia of the conjunctiva. Pale skin. Sometimes agitation, after taking large doses of unconsciousness. Death can occur from breathing stops or when events increasing circulatory failure. If the patient comes from narcosis, is developing the second phase - gastroenteriticheskaya. Frequent vomiting, diarrhea, sometimes with blood, abdominal cramps. In this stage comes the heavy defeat of the liver, and kidneys. Develop acute renal failure with jaundice, oliguria or anuriei. The latter may be the cause of death. Treatment. In acute inhalant poisoning bring the patient out pollution. Breathing clean air, oxygen or Carbogen. The ingestion - stomach scene, the introduction of salt laxatives. Kordiamin, korazol, caffeine. Parenteral introduction glucose solution, kampolona, ascorbic acid, thiamin, Niacin, vitamin B12. In acute renal failure, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis.
6. Antifreeze (a mixture of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol). Symptoms. The first stage of intoxication, gradually increasing. Euphoria. Hyperemia person, staggering gait, fussiness. Pain in podlojecna area, nausea, vomiting. After 6-8 hours. the second stage is the nerve, brain. Sometimes drastic action. The mind is darkened. Comatose state. Stiff neck. In severe cases, areflexia, pupils dilated, weak react to light. Involuntary urination and defecation. Deep noisy breathing. The reduced amount of urine, the reaction is strongly acidic urine, a small amount of protein, oxalates. This phase in severe cases can result in death. At milder degrees of poisoning the mind gradually becomes clearer, the General condition improves, and the sick can be healed. In more severe cases, in 2-4 days, and sometimes later developing the third phase of acute renal failure. Oliguria, turning into anuria. Urine protein, shaped elements and especially characteristic of antifreeze poisoning atypical oxalate crystals. Excessive thirst. The increase of residual nitrogen in the blood (up to 300 mg% or more). Acidosis. Blood pressure rises. The sharp smell of urea from the mouth of the patient. At the same time increases the liver, may receive jaundice. Picture of acute renal-hepatic insufficiency. Death in these cases comes from acute uraemia. Confirms the diagnosis of poisoning antifreeze detection in urine atypical oxalate crystals. Treatment. Gastric lavage followed by the introduction of laxative salt. The introduction of a large number of solution of sodium bicarbonate orally and intravenously. Bloodletting, exchange transfusion. Injections of strychnine, kordiamin, koratala, caffeine. Intravenous 40% solution of glucose in 50-100 ml of the b Vitamins (thiamine, In,2 and others). Washing stomach, better than 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate, mechanized enema. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis. Diet sharp reduction of quantity of protein.
7. Barbanel see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
8. The barbitala (synonym veronal) see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
9. The barbitala-sodium (synonym Medina) see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
10. Veronal (synonym barbitala) see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
I. alcohol see ethyl Alcohol.
12. Dichloroethane see Antipetrol.
13. Wood alcohol , see the methyl Alcohol.
14. Caustic see caustic Alkali.
15. Caustic soda see caustic Alkali.
16. The strong acid: nitric, sulfuric (kuporosnoj oil), salt, "Tsarskaya vodka" (mixtures of hydrochloric and nitric acids), soldering acid (chloride zinc in hydrochloric acid), acetic acid (vinegar essence). Symptoms. The mucous membrane of the lips, mouth and throat, back of the throat burned and swollen; places burns covered with a coating; scab different the color depending on the acid that caused the burn (gray-black in the burn sulphuric acid, yellow and nitrogen, whitish - salt, light gray or brown - vinegar). Often burns to the skin around the mouth and neck. Pain in places burn. Swallowing and the passage of food (even liquid) to the esophagus sharply painful at first very difficult (sometimes up to complete obstruction) the swelling of the mucous membrane and the acceding spasm of the esophagus. Enhanced salivation. Vomiting sour mass with blood. The victim excited moans. Severe pain in podlojecna area. Can grow torpid, shock, collapse. Frequent burns to the respiratory tract with swelling of the epiglottis, larynx, trachea. When narrowing of the glottis is required emergency tracheotomy. When you burn bronchial breathing disorder can cause of death. There are increased body temperature, urine changes (protein, shaped elements). In severe poisoning, acetic acid - symptoms destruction of erythrocytes: hemoglobinuria, in the urine protein and haemoglobin slag, develops Blackwater argued with acute renal failure, oliguria, and anuriei. Gradually inflammation on the ground burn decrease, swallowing and the passage of food through the esophagus become freer. The mucous membrane is gradually cleared. May be late complications: narrowing the burnt of the esophagus and the pylorus of the stomach with the inability to food through the mouth, aspiration pneumonia. Treatment. Early and careful washing stomach with plenty of lukewarm water. The blood is not an obstacle for this process. With a sharp pain - subcutaneous morphine solution or pantopon, often repeatedly, together with a solution of atropine (0.5-1 ml of 0.1% solution). At hit of acid on the skin flushing strong jet of water; sulphuric acid before rinsing to remove a piece of bandage. In case of collapse - introduction subcutaneously or intravenously izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride or glucose, application cordiamine, koratala, camphor, mezatona and norepinephrine. In view of acidosis - intravenous 200 - 300 ml of 4% solution of sodium bicarbonate. In heart failure - strofantin, korglykonum and other cardiac glycosides intravenously. Swallowing pieces of ice. Ice on my stomach. Rinsing the mouth cavity and pharynx weak solutions of disinfectants (rivanol, furatsilina, and others). Injections of antibiotics. To reduce inflammation and to prevent stenosis - ACTH by 40 U per day or steroid hormones. The food in the first period only liquid cold: ice cream, milk, cream, sweet tea, butter, raw eggs. With the improvement of swallowing diet extends: porridges, puddings, more dense products, chemically non-irritating. Of drugs: emulsion sweet almonds for a spoonful every 2-3 hours or emulsion any vegetable oils, such as sunflower. If complete obstruction even liquid food in the early days it is recommended nutritional support (see). When growing acute uremia - peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. In cases of persistent narrowing of the esophagus, or the output of the stomach patients will be treated by the surgeon.
17. Luminal (synonym phenobarbital) see Hypnotics barbituric series.
18. Medinal (synonym barbitala-sodium) see Hypnotics barbituric series.
19. Copper sulphate, copper sulphate. Acting locally irritating and cauterizing the way, is a severe hemolytic poison. Symptoms. Nausea, vomiting green mass, metallic taste in the mouth, pain in the abdomen, frequent liquid mixed with blood chair. Dizziness, weakness. Tachycardia. In very severe cases of shock, during which death can occur. Developing hemolysis causes progressive anemia and hemoglobinuria. In bloody urine protein and a large number of haemoglobin toxins. Developing acute renal failure with oliguria or anuriei, with a sharp uremia, which is sick and can die. Sometimes profuse gastric bleeding caused by corrosive gastritis and ulcers. Treatment. Ingestion 0.6 g yellow blood salt (Kalium ferrocyanatum) in water, forming insoluble salt copper. Drink milk and egg protein; necessarily subsequent washing stomach or vomiting. After washing stomach continue to give the inside of 0.1% solution of yellow blood salt 1 tsp. every 15 minutes, burnt magnesia. The early introduction of unithiol (see) intramuscularly. Diet mechanically and chemically benign. With the growing phenomena of acute uremia - hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
20. Methanol see methyl Alcohol.
21. Liquid ammonia. Symptoms - see strong Acid and caustic Alkali. Volatile ammonia due to the defeat of the respiratory tract: edema of the glottis, sharp cough, dyspnoea, acute tracheobronchitis and pulmonary edema. Slezotechenie. Death can occur from asphyxia. Treatment - see strong Acid.
22. Carbon monoxide. The main sources of poisoning FROM - coal gas, carbon monoxide and exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Symptoms. Headache, dizziness, nausea, chest pain, shortness of breath, vomiting, noise in the ears, flashing before his eyes. Can be mental disorders type maniacal conditions, seizures, excitation. Increasing weakness, especially in the lower extremities. Drowsiness. Loss of consciousness, deep coma. Narrow at first, the pupils gradually expanded, response to light disappears. The facial skin is red lips cherry-red. The breath is shallow. Usually tachycardia. Arterial pressure may be decreased. The rise of temperature up to 40 degrees and more, perhaps the Central Genesis. Often small hyperglycemia and carbohydraturia. ECG - changes, characteristic for violations of coronary circulation. You may experience bedsores. Even after a few days of such a difficult state the recovery of the sick is not excluded. Death can occur from respiratory failure or circulatory failure in the first hours of poisoning, usually on the second day. On the exit from a coma in a patient can stay late complications associated primarily with changes in the brain. In the presence of a coma poisoning WITH it should not be confused with poisoned wine with alcohol, hypnotics means, stroke, head trauma. Helps history. In case of doubt, the question resolves detection WITH (carboxyhemoglobin) in the blood. A characteristic light-red and liquid state of blood. Treatment. To make poisoned from the poisonous atmosphere for fresh air. Oxygen inhalation or better Carbogen. Artificial respiration sometimes within a few hours. Bloodletting. Exchange transfusion. Lobelin. Intravenous chromosme (50 ml of 2% solution metilenovogo blue-f - 50 ml of 40% glucose solution) again. Subcutaneously isotonic solution of sodium chloride (500-1000 ml), caffeine, kordiamin, korazol, etc., Strong tea, coffee. At excitation under the skin of 0.05% solution of scopolamine at 0.5 to 1 ml, in a warm bath. Heating pad to the feet. Symptomatic treatment of complications. In severe acute poisoning WITH a long rest, not less than 2-3 weeks and at some complications and more.
23. Pahikarpin. In small doses, has a calming effect on the Central nervous system, causes large excitation and convulsions. Has a blocking effect on the conduction of impulses through the sympathetic and parasympathetic nodes of the autonomic nervous system and stimulating effect on the uterus muscles. Symptoms. General weakness, dizziness, Oneonta and cooling of the extremities, nausea, vomiting, dilated pupils, pain in the abdomen, paleness of the person, blackout. Pulse rare, in other cases, on the contrary, Ochsen. Can be bowel paresis with the disappearance of intestinal noise. A long delay urination. Next, complete loss of consciousness, can be and tonic clonic convulsions, areflexia. The breath is shallow, rare. Pupils dramatically expanded. Developing vascular collapse. Death may occur within a few hours from respiratory arrest. In cases of recovery may remain more or less long-term neurological complications. Treatment. Gastric lavage, followed by the introduction of a solution of salt laxatives. Calm, warm body. Periodic emptying of the bladder. Artificial respiration to restore muscle tone and breath normalization (sometimes within hours). With circulatory failure - kordiamin, korazol, mezaton, norepinephrine, strophanthin. Treatment of complications.


24. Soldering acid see strong Acid.
25. Mercury. Metallic mercury in internal reception is not toxic; toxic released already at room temperature mercury vapors and especially mercury salts. The most poisonous sublimate (Duhlata mercury). Symptoms. Acute gastroenteritis, anuria with acute uremia, disease and ulcerative-hemorrhagic colitis. Within 15 to 30 minutes after administration - frequent vomiting, sometimes with blood. Burning pain in the mouth and in the course of the esophagus, then in the epigastric region and around the abdomen. Salivation, metallic taste in the mouth. From the 2nd day of heavy ulcerative stomatitis. Diarrhea with blood and mucus, tenesmus. Oliguria and full anuria, which can be the cause of death. In favourable cases, anuria may go into polyuria, and the patient gradually recovering. In severe poisoning on the first day, develops shock, which can cause rapid death. 2-3-day forms a black border on the gums from the teeth - sulphur deposition of mercury. Once inside the crystal drug the patient may develop in the stomach ulcers occurring cause profuse gastric bleeding. Stomatitis, especially gangrenous, can be a source of sepsis. Diarrhea, profuse salivation are the reason of sharp gipohloremia. Treatment. The ingestion of milk, egg white, necessarily induce vomiting. The early introduction of unithiol (2,3-dimercaptopropane sodium). In the body of thiol drugs (including UNITA) link in the blood and tissues of heavy metals (not only lead and arsenic; these substances are harmless and are excreted in the urine. Unitiol (5% solution, 5 ml in ampoules) impose subcutaneously or intramuscularly: 10 kg of patient's weight 1 ml of the preparation. In the first 2-3 days is not less than 4 injections per day (4-6 hours). In the future, the injection quantity is reduced to three. The treatment lasts 6-7 days and longer. In the absence of unithiol you can enter into the stomach 100-150 ml universal antidote (see). In 10 minutes after that necessarily gastric lavage followed by the introduction of salt laxatives. If this antidote - immediate gastric lavage. The struggle with secondary infection - antibiotics. At stomatitis - rinse weak solutions of the disinfectant. At diarrheas - enema of chamomile or from a very weak solution of potassium permanganate. In sharp tenesmus - introduction subcutaneously solutions of papaverine and atropine. If gipohloremia - introduction of an isotonic solution of sodium chloride subcutaneously or hypertension (5-10%) intravenously. When acidosis - introduction alkalis. Diet mechanically and chemically benign sharp reduction of quantity of protein. During increase of uraemia - use, often repeated, hemodialysis. In the absence of an artificial kidney - peritoneal dialysis. Due to introduction in practice of unithiol and hemodialysis forecast in the administration of mercuric chloride improved dramatically.
26. Sulfuric acid see strong Acid.
27. Sleep AIDS barbituric number: barbanel (amytal sodium), Verona (barbitala), luminal (phenobarbital), Medina (barbitala-sodium). Symptoms. For mild poisoning and in the first hours of heavy intoxication typical drug action without violations of breathing and blood circulation. Even light in the beginning of poisoning with further absorption of the poison pass gradually into a severe form with coma victim. The first person often red, later becomes grayish and cyanotic. Breathing normally surface, initially rare, later in most cases" casino. Signs of rising circulatory failure. Tendon, pharyngeal and corneal reflexes gradually fade away and disappear. Coma may be interrupted by a state of excitement. Very quickly develop bedsores. Sometimes the temperature rise (40 degrees or more) Central (brain) origin. Death usually occurs from respiratory arrest. May develop vascular collapse and pulmonary edema. Observed and a poisoning drugs means and alcohol or carbon monoxide, or morphine. In severe poisoning, even with treatment, sleep can last 5-7 days. The differential diagnosis is carried out with acidotic coma (diabetes), and older people - with apoplexy. A similar pattern of poisoning give morphine, alcohol and carbon monoxide. An important distinctive characteristics can be breath (acetone, alcohol), pupillary reaction, color of skin (light red in the face, lips cherry-red poisoning), as well as the history of the disease. Treatment. Washing stomach, even if the poison was adopted on the eve, followed by the introduction of salt laxatives. In the washing head poisoned should be turned to the side and lie low, to avoid aspiration of wash water. Thorough washing of the oral cavity and skin. Remove dentures out of his mouth. To monitor the emptying of the bladder. Monitoring the condition of the respiratory tract. Periodically suction mucus accumulation in the Airways. Often turn sick to avoid pulmonary atelectasis and possible bedsores. When shallow and intermittent breathing - breathing humidified oxygen. If breathing is getting worse,early intubation, artificial respiration, and then tracheotomy. With the collapse of intravenous isotonic solution of sodium chloride or glucose norepinephrine in the drop way, mezaton. In threatening pulmonary edema - intravenous strophanthin. Concurrently administered diuretics (novoryt, urea and other). With the threat of acidosis - intravenous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. For the prevention of pneumonia antibiotics. For the impact on the Central nervous system - the solution of strychnine (0,1%) for the 1-2 ml every hour subcutaneously or intravenously, kordiamin, korazol 1 ml again intramuscularly or intravenously until seizures. Best analepticheskih (exciting) tool is bemegride (synonym: megimide, Ayrton and others). Introduction should begin possibly earlier after poisoning and the onset of coma, 10 ml (50 mg) every 3 to 5 minutes to restore corneal and pharyngeal reflexes and muscle tone. When seizures do breaks in the introduction of the drug. The number entered bemegrida varies depending on the severity of the patient - 30-40 ml, sometimes significantly large quantities. When a large overdose may experience cramps and motor excitation. When restoring reflexes and muscle tone normalization pulse, arterial pressure, respiration, restoring the normal skin color, independent movements and the voices of the end product. Consciousness in these cases usually fully restored within 8 hours. In severe cases with prolonged coma shown exchange transfusion and dialysis.
28. Hydrochloric acid see strong Acid.
29. The sublimate see Mercury.
30. Typos (abroad parathion and many other brand names of the drug). Organophosphorus connection with the smell of garlic. Insecticide wide actions. Most toxicity tifoso related to the ability to block the cholinesterase with the accumulation in the body of acetylcholine. Poison can enter the body through the mouth, skin, and respiratory tract.
Symptoms. 1. Muskarinovoe effect: miosis, lacrimation, blinking, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, drowsiness, sweating, increased bronchial secretions, and bradycardia. 2. Nikotinopodobnye effect: muscle weakness, fibrillar muscle twitching and toniceski-clonic seizures. 3. Action on the Central nervous system: anxiety, headache, convulsions, coma. One can distinguish three main periods in the clinic of acute poisoning tifoso (E. A. Luzhniki and B. N. Dagaev: period of excitation, the period of hyperkinesia and seizures, period coma. In each subsequent period symptoms muskarinovoe and nikotinopodobnyh actions tifoso increase. Especially seriously abundant Department of bronchial secretions, as this may lead to the development of pulmonary edema. Severe shortness of breath with very frequent respiratory movements (30-40 and more than 1 min). Blood pressure may rise significantly. There is a delay urination and the overflow of the bladder. Developing phenomenon of collapse. Death occurs from respiratory arrest and subsequent cardiac arrest. Cholinesterase blood acute poisoning sharply reduced.
Treatment. After contact with the poison through the mouth - washing stomach, followed by the introduction of a solution of salt laxatives. As early as possible in large doses start entering begin intravenous atropine (2-3 mg) atropine should be re-entered after 10-15 minutes, as the action ends faster than the effect of the poison. In severe cases, dose of atropine in the first hours may be 20-30 mg and more, while a large part of it imposed in the first 6 hours. Injection of atropine should be continued until there is no longer cardiopulmonary effects and for several days. Large doses of atropine can stop muskarinovoe influence (choking, intestinal colic) and to reduce the impact on the Central nervous system (convulsions), but atropine does not remove nikotinopodobnye actions, therefore, in severe cases, the patient may die from a paralysis of the respiratory muscles, the muscles of the throat and tongue, if not done in a timely manner intubation and perform artificial respiration. To reduce nikotinopodobnye actions proposed special reaktivatory cholinesterase, such as PAM - pyridine-aldoxime-[2]- metalogic.
You can use the more common tools: against excitation and spasms the recommended intravenous or intramuscular injection of chlorpromazine (2.5% solution 1-2 ml), magnesium sulfate (25% solution 10 ml), hexane (2% solution 1-2 ml). In sharp respiratory disorders - intubation and bronchial suction content. When pulmonary edema - strofantin or other cardiac glycosides intravenously, oxygen inhalation with alcohol vapor. In case of collapse - mezaton and other vascular equipment. Lowering reserve alkalinity of the blood - introduction of alkali into the body, when giperkaliemii - gipotiazid. To prevent pneumonia antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin).
31. Phenobarbital see Hypnotics means barbituric series.
32. Chloride ethylene see Antipetrol.
33. Aqua Regia see strong Acid.
34. Alkali hydroxide: sodium hydroxide (hydrate of sodium oxide, caustic soda)sodium hydroxide (hydroxide of potassium). Poisoning alkalis leads to more severe local defeat than acids; their resorptive effect is relatively small.
The symptoms are similar to that observed in the poisoning of a strong acid (see Acids strong). Due to the deep destruction of the walls of the esophagus and stomach (not only the mucous membrane, but submucosal tissues) is often later rejection of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, and sometimes stomach in the form of a cast. Following this, there may come a fatal bleeding. Deep ulcerative process ends with scarring, so after burn alkalis observed, almost as a rule, the narrowing of the esophagus, and often stomach. Treatment-- see strong Acid.
35. Ethanol see ethyl Alcohol.
36. Ethylene glycol see Antifreeze.
Cm. the Antidotes. S, Hemolytic poisons, Food poisoning, Food diseases, Antidotes, Poisonous animals, Poisonous plants.