Local radiation injuries

Forensic medical examination of the local radiation lesions occur more often. The term "local corruption" should be considered as tentative since when exposed to radiation even on the limited areas of the body or body reacts entire body. In the tissues affected local irradiation, there are specific changes: alteration, inflammation, necrosis and rejection of necrotic tissue. By ionizing radiation distinguish radiation reaction (erythema, dry or moist epidermis) and radiation damage requiring special, often long-term treatment. Clinical manifestations of radiation reaction in many respects similar to thermal burns, which gave grounds to call them radiation burn.
The severity of local radiation injuries is determined by two main factors: the dose absorbed energy and physical characteristics of ionizing radiation. The most severe damage causes deep streams of neutrons, gamma rays and x-rays. At influence of penetrating radiations are damaged not only the skin and subcutaneous fat layer, but the underlying tissues, bones and internal organs. Sebopsoriasis radiation - the so-called soft x-rays and beta particles by irradiation with small areas do not cause serious consequences, and alpha particles do not cause damage in single exposure, pausing Horny layer of the skin.
Local radiation trauma and acute radiation syndrome, characterized by power phase of development. In it there are the following periods: hidden, period hyperemia and the beginning of edema, the period of the formation of bubbles, necrosis and the healing period. In the pathogenesis of radiation damage are important disturbance of microcirculation irradiated tissue, decrease the metabolism and repair processes. Disorder of micro-circulation leads to hypoxia, resulting in the exposure zone and degenerative dystrophic changes with pronounced symptoms of MS tissue and fibrosis. Subsequently, these pathological changes lead to necrosis of the damaged tissue and formation of long-term healing of late radiation ulcers (Fig. 89). Complications of radiation ulcers can be: the development of sepsis, profuse bleeding, perforation in abdominal organs, malignant transformation damaged by irradiation of tissues (radiation cancer, sarcoma).

Fig. 89. Corruption at the local action of radiant energy.