Metal-ceramic production

Ceramic-metal production (occupational health) - manufacture of various products from powders of pure metals (powder metallurgy), their refractory compounds and alloys by pressing and processing in furnaces with high temperature. The main production operations ceramic-metal production: grinding of raw materials, preparation of a mixture of powdered materials, cold or hot pressing of products from powders, sintered in electric furnaces in a protective atmosphere of hydrogen or any of the inert gases.
The main occupational hazards in the production of metal-ceramic is fine dustcontaining depending on the nature of technology, iron, copper, Nickel, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, beryllium, silver, cadmium, titanium, zirconium, graphite, silicon, and boron. Most of these substances has a General toxic action, and also induces the growth in the lungs of connective tissue and can cause workers occupational disease (pneumoconiosis, berillios, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, dermatitis).
Dust concentration in the production atmosphere depends on the nature of technological operations, application of dust funds. The largest concentrations are observed in the stock procurement and machine shops in the grinding. In stock procurement and extrusion shops there is the noise of medium - and high-frequency composition, couples plasticizers (gasoline, alcohol, and other). In thermal shop air temperature sometimes reaches 35-40°, infrared radiation at work places near furnaces 12-15 cal/cm2 -min
Basic health activities. Sealing dust-forming equipment; implementation of local suction from mills, sieve and from areas cooling products discharged from ovens; mechanization and sealing of transport of dusty materials; equipment of electric furnaces automatic loading and unloading devices and heat insulation; cleaning of premises only with the help of vacuum cleaners. Of personal protective equipment is recommended the use of a respirator (see) and protivosokove (see). Workers should undergo periodic medical examination.

Ceramic-metal production (powder metallurgy) - manufacture of various products from powders of pure metals, refractory compounds and alloys by pressing and treatment in conditions of high temperatures. Metal-ceramic manufacture includes mixing of powdery materials, cold or hot pressing of products from powders, sintered in electric furnaces in a protective atmosphere of hydrogen, the converted gas or inert gases at temperatures below the melting temperature of the main component of the charge. Some of the products are impregnated in mineral oils or sulfatirovnie, and sometimes mechanical processing (calibration, grinding).
Main professional hazards in the production of metal-ceramic - fine powdery dust, metal compounds, including copper, iron, Nickel, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, beryllium, silver, cadmium, titanium, zirconium, graphite, silicon, boron, aluminum, and others depending on the type of product. Most metal dust it has a General toxic and weak fibrogenic effect.
Most air dustiness (tens and hundreds of milligrams per cubic meter) is celebrated in stock procurement and mechanical workshops (polishing), less - in the press, thermal. Working stock procurement and forging shops are exposed to the medium and high frequency noise, fumes of gasoline, alcohol and some other chemicals used as plasticizers. In thermal shop when the furnace temperature can reach 30 to 40 degrees, infrared radiation can be 12-15 cal/cm2-min; possible allocation of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen and other gases.
In the process of malapropism and sulfatirovnie can be released into the air of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds.
Occupational diseases in M. p. are pneumoconiosis (see), catarrhs, degenerative changes in the myocardium, liver, kidneys, skin disorders, diseases of vessels and other
Health activities. Technological processes, accompanied by the emission of dust and gas, pressurized, equip local pumps with air purification from dust before release to the atmosphere. Seal and meganisyou transport of dusty materials. Pressed products on automatic and semi-automatic presses equipped with devices preventing injuries of the hands of the workers. Heat treatment of metal powders and products is carried out in electric furnaces, equipped with automatic loading and unloading devices and heat insulation. Lots of cool materials and products after heat treatment is covered and will be equipped with devices of local exhaust ventilation. For cleaning of industrial premises provide for the creation of a centralised suction system or other equipment. Working M. p. issued protective devices: respirator IIIB-1 (see Respirators) and others, and work shops with high noise level - proteosome (see). Working basic trades are subject to preliminary and periodic medical examinations.