Metallurgy

Metallurgy (occupational health) - an industry for production of metals from ores. Metallurgy is divided into black (production of cast iron, steel, rolled) and color (non-ferrous metals production). The main occupational hazards and in black, and in nonferrous metallurgy are infrared (and sometimes UV) radiation and enter work premises massive amounts of convection heat (see Hot shops). Temperatures often exceed 35 degrees. On operations, requiring great physical strain, these conditions can lead to violation of thermoregulation and functional changes of the cardiovascular system. Large variations in temperature and convective movement of cold air can cause respiratory diseases; profuse sweating leads to weight loss, increased consumption of salts, proteins and vitamins. Maceration of the skin with sweat, contributes to the emergence of pustular skin diseases.
The gases released during the production process in the steel industry, consisting of carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, normally do not exceed maximum allowable concentrations. When cooking alloyed steels can fumes and oxides of manganese, chromium, selenium, beryllium, etc.; the combustion of oils and resins, which are used to lubricate moulds and other equipment allocated hydrocarbons. Important adverse factor in the shops of ferrous metallurgy is noise (often high frequency), especially in the blast furnace shop at blast in electrosteel-smelting, Ferroalloy and rolling shops. Sorting, grinding, weighing and other preparatory operations in metallurgy accompanied by the emission of dust. In ferrous metallurgy dust (see) in the preparation of the charge contains up to 20% silica. The dust generated during repair of metallurgical furnaces, mixers and ladles, contains up to 70% silica. In non-ferrous metallurgy during thermal processing of sulfide ores are allocated sulfur dioxide, sometimes in excess of MPC; hydrofluoric, silicofluoride and organofluorine compounds produced by electrolysis and races melting of cryolite in aluminum production During glorieuses roasting and hydrochemical receipt of non-ferrous metals are allocated chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Arsenic and hydrogen cyanide found in gold, tin, zinc and other industries of non-ferrous metallurgy. In nonferrous metallurgy dust often contains arsenic (see), lead (see), chromium (see) and other impurities.
Health activities in metallurgy: rational planning workshops, placement of equipment with the possibility of natural ventilation (aeration), the device on the roofs of lights nezabvennogo type replacement in nonferrous metallurgy of all kinds of firing of furnaces in mechanical hermetic automated burning in a boiling layer, replacement of smelting in the fiery, mine and reflective electrothermic furnaces for melting, cyclone with oxygen blast. Tape plants of ferrous metallurgy supply casing with suction. The processes of crushing, grinding, mixing produce wet, apply pneumatic and hydraulic transport of dusty materials l Ave Replace silica refractories for chrome magnesia with the content of 4-6% silica. Casting yards from the domain do for each blast furnaces separately, are mechanization opening and closing notches, change lances. In addition to aeration, to combat the heat in the blast furnace and open-hearth furnace departments, and also in non-ferrous metallurgy use the insulation of equipment with bringing the temperature of its surface to 35-40 degrees, the shielding (up to 2 m from the floor) areas where impossible insulation. Also used water curtains, absorbing screens, nets, protective clothing (see Clothes, protection at work). To prevent overheating of the body used air dushirovanie in the workplace, cooling screens (struggle with radiation), the water sprayed, the device holiday destinations in the shops with cooling their enclosures, and the security of workers salted sparkling water and vitaminopodobnye protein drinks. Used as protective goggles (see) with filters from the radiation of infrared and ultraviolet radiation, and for the prevention of colds heat curtains and automatic closing doors, heated refrigerated areas of production, etc. Required periodic medical examination of workers.

The metallurgy industry production of metals. Is divided into two types - black and color.