Methyl alcohol

Methyl alcohol (synonym methanol; formula CH3HE) is the first member of a number of monatomic alcohols. A volatile, colorless liquid with a smell of wine alcohol and burning taste, temperature boiling 64,509 degrees. Well soluble in water. Highly flammable with air vapors of methanol form explosive mixtures.
Methyl alcohol is widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries for methylation as a solvent in the composition of lacquers, for denaturirovannym ethyl alcohol obtaining formaldehyde and formalin, formaldehyde resins, dyes, for the extraction of substances, as a non-freezing fluid for heat sinks, additives to liquid fuels.
Methyl alcohol enters the body through the skin, respiratory tract and the digestive tract (in the use denatured alcohol and lacquers with the purpose of causing intoxication). Absorbed fast, slow, koumouliruet. In the body oxidized forming highly toxic compounds formaldehyde and formic acid.
Methyl alcohol is of nervous and vascular poison with narcotic effect. Causes the collapse (see) with the development of hypoxemia and acidosis. Selectively affects the optic nerve and the retina. Early symptoms of poisoning - dilated pupils, impaired vision.
The most dangerous of methyl alcohol poisoning by ingestion. Lethal dose of 30-100 ml depending on individual sensitivity. Reception 5-10 ml may cause severe poisoning with vision loss. Symptoms of acute poisoning - nausea, vomiting and intoxication. In severe cases, cyanosis, shortness of breath, convulsions, weak frequent pulse, no reaction of pupils on light. Death from respiratory arrest. In less severe cases, the complaints of pain in the whole body, flashing and fog before the eyes, often persistent violation of vision up to blindness, changes from the nervous system (neuritis, phenomena vegetative dystonia). The diagnosis is confirmed by detection in urine formic acid. In chronic intoxication, dizziness, flashing eyes, transient visual disturbances, conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal upset, nausea, intoxication.
First aid in case of poisoning methyl alcohol is aimed at removing it from the body, delay oxidation of methyl alcohol and fighting acidosis. The ingestion - washing stomach during the first two hours, excessive drinking, treatment with alkali (sodium bicarbonate - inside 10-15 g, intravenous 5% solution at the rate of 7 ml per 1 kg of body weight until neutral or slightly alkaline reaction urine). Antidote - ethyl alcohol (reduces oxidation of methyl alcohol and other toxic products of transformation) are inside of 0.5 ml per 1 kg of body weight every 4 hours for 2-3 days or intravenous 5% solution of 5% glucose (1 liter). According to the testimony, such as oxygen, Carbogen, artificial respiration.
Prevention: briefing working on the toxic action of methyl alcohol and rules of work with it; marking of containers; skin protection from pollution; ventilation of industrial premises; periodic health examinations (1 time per year with the participation of the oculist, neuropathologist). Maximum permissible concentration of alcohol in the air of working premises 5 mg/m3.

Methyl alcohol is the first in a series of limit monatomic alcohols. Colourless thin liquid with a pungent unpleasant taste and smell, close to the smell of wine spirit; temperature PL-of 97.8 degrees; temperature instrumentation 64,509 degrees. Mixed in all relationships with water and many organic solvents (benzene, acetone and others). Highly flammable vapours M. S. with air forming explosive mixtures.
In small quantities is found in plants (Heraclea, the leaves of the chestnut trees and lindens"), essential oils (Jasmine). In small quantities is contained in the blood of healthy people, found in the urine. Modern industrial method of obtaining M. S. is the synthesis of hydrogen and carbon monoxide:
WITH + 2N2 → CH3OH.
At oxidation M. S. get a formic aldehyde (formaldehyde and formic acid. Oxidation can be conducted in several stages:
O O O
CH3HE → SNO + H2O → HCOOH → CO2 + H2o
Formaldehyde is also obtained by dehydration M. c.:
CH3HE → NSNO.
In industry formaldehyde is produced by combination of both reactions. With alkaline metals M. C. forms mutilate:
2CH3OH + 2Na → 2CH3ONa + H2; with acid - esters:
CH3OH + RCOOH → RCOOCH3 + H2o
Methyl alcohol used for the production of formic acid, formaldehyde, methyl chloride, dimethylsulfate and other products, which are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Methyl esters of benzoic acid, Anthranilic acid and other acids are used as fragrances in perfumery.
M. S. use in the manufacture of organic dyes, lacquers, varnishes, for denaturirovannym ethanol as an additive to liquid fuels with a view to enhancing their octane number and as antifreeze, microscopic practice - as fixing agent in the processing of the blood smear.
Cm. also Alcohols.