The technique of medical application of physical exercises. Dosage

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Before the appointment of medical physical culture targets for the use of physical exercises are chosen means and forms for the decision of these problems. To do all this properly, it is necessary to take into account the phase of the disease, the reaction to it of the body, the condition of all organs and systems, not involved in the disease process, mental reaction to the patient's illness and his other individual features.
In all cases it is important to observe the principle of combination of General and local influence of physical exercises, remembering that the recovery largely depends on the General condition of the patient.
Every physical exercise, used in medical physical culture, has a restoring supporting or preventive effect on the patient. Therefore, in the appointment of medical physical culture it is necessary to define (other than medical) orientation of its use: with the purpose of restoration of impaired functions, keeping them healthy in General or to prevent diseases, their complications and other variations in health status.
On the basis of General provisions of medical physical culture are built of various private methods that reflect the uniqueness of pathophysiological and clinical manifestations of the disease in an individual patient or group of patients, compiled by nosological principle. The basic principles on the use of medical physical culture are the integrity of the organism (the unity of mental and physical), the unity of the environment and organism (social and biological), the unity of form and function, the General and local, treatment and prevention (C. N. Moshkov, 1984).
The technique of medical physical culture should be based on General pedagogical (teaching) principles. Efficiency are possible only with the active attitude of the patient to practice. Explanation Methodist prospects of accelerating the recovery of the disturbed functions under the influence of physical exercises increases the interest of the patient to them.
The principle of visualization in teaching movements is carried out not only through visual experience, but with the help of the other senses. The screening exercise confirms explanation and helps the student to do them properly.
The principle of accessibility depends on an assessment of a doctor or a Methodist clinical manifestations of the disease and the physical condition of the patient.
Health benefits of medical physical culture is a result of the implementation of the principle of systematicity practice, built with continuity and sequence of the exercises. The classes begin with a simple and light, well-known to the patient exercises. The growth of its functional capabilities are assigned to more complex exercises (with strict consideration reaction of the organism). Classes are held daily, sometimes several times a day, at a certain dosage in combination with appointed by the regime of the day.
The principle of individual approach implies taking into account sex, age, level of fitness, overall condition of the patient, the flow of the main and concomitant diseases.
Along with the educational principles of great importance optimal dosing of means of medical physical culture - establishing a cumulative dose (value) of the physical loading at application as one exercise, and any complex (morning gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics, walk, and others) (C. N. Moshkov).
Physical activity should be adequate to the functional capabilities of the patient. Excessively small or big load will not have sufficient remedial action. Load dosed by the choice of starting positions, selection of exercises, a number of General developmental and breathing exercises, their duration, number of repetitions of each exercise, rate, amplitude of movements, degree of force tension, complexity of movement, their rhythm, emotionality practice, their density.
In curative physical culture choice of initial conditions is dependent on motor mode prescribed by a doctor. There are three basic starting position: lying (back, stomach, on a side), sitting (in bed, in the chair, on the carpet with straight legs, sitting in bed or on a chair with a flat feet), standing on all fours - knee-brush, polychlorine - Bozeman, standing without support, based on crutches, sticks, hodilki, parallel bars, horizontal bar, a climbing wall, a chair, and so on). For example, diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems it is possible to exercise the provisions of lying, reclining with his head held high, sitting, standing, in diseases of the digestive system - sitting, lying on his back, standing, with injuries of the spine - lying on his back and belly, standing on all fours, reclining, standing.