Methods of research of bowels

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In clinical conditions justify the presence of a pathological process in the intestine (functional or organic) is based on three types of information: clinical observation (data of the anamnesis and physical examination of the patient), functional research aimed at the study of specific features of thin and thick intestines and lifetime morphological examination (x-ray, biopsy, Cytology).
In the assessment of clinical symptomspointing to the intestinal damage, you should consider a number of features inherent pathology of the digestive tract. When bowel disease more than other organs of digestion, you may experience symptoms of a General nature (vasomotor, neurovegetative symptoms, weight loss, anemia, temperature rise, etc.). There is a close functional relationship between the intestine and other organs of the digestive system (stomach, pancreas, liver, bile passages). In this regard, in conditions of a pathology most often found combined syndromes, including both the symptoms indicating the intestinal damage, and the symptoms associated with functional disorders other digestive organs (for example, gastro-intestinal, intestinal-pancreatic disorders, and so on). To the peculiarities of the pathology of the intestine should be considered and the possibility of a defeat in a number of common diseases. So, the cause of pathological changes of the intestine may be endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism, Addison disease) or nervous disorders. It is also important to note that at the present time (Bockus, 1964; Margada, 1967) is becoming more and more obvious predominance in a wide variety of diseases of the bowel (especially of the colon) of functional disorders and to a lesser extent - organic changes.
The initial step in the diagnosis of lesions of the intestine is the collection of anamnesis. Significant critical approach to complaints of patients. During the collection of anamnesis is set to the clarification of a number of General issues. So, constipation may be a necessary consequence of the permanent suppress the urge to have a bowel movement at engineers and persons of other professions. Have the value of the age, lifestyle, nutrition, the presence of harmful habits. Important information about former bowel disease. It should be remembered about the two possibilities. Previously diseases can be etiological connected with the present (for example, acute dysentery), or observable symptoms are a manifestation of exacerbations long flowing chronic diseases thin or colon. Also is essential to ascertain whether there are diseases of other organs, especially the digestive. Often symptoms of the intestine caused by the presence of ulcerative disease, chronic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and so on.
For lesions of the intestine characterized by the following symptoms: pain, a sense of fullness in the abdomen, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, often alternating diarrhea and constipation), rumbling in the stomach, nausea, rarely vomiting. Stomach pains without clear their localization is one of the most common symptoms indicative of intestinal damage. They can be of different nature, duration and intensity. Very often there are cramping (intestinal "colic"). They begin gradually increase, reaching significant intensity then become weaker and after some period of prosperity (different for different patients) are repeated again. The most typical cramping pains are in the lead poisoning ("lead colic"). In the basis of this pain lies spasm smooth muscles, mainly circular muscle fibers of the intestines. In this regard, violated the course of normal bowel movements. Cramping pain is less intense in the application of heat and antispastic means that can help reduce spasms.
Very often there are the so-called distantsionnye pain associated with the extension of the intestine, mainly gas (flatulence). This pain usually lose their intensity, or disappear at all after the discharge of gases. Distantsionnye pain most often associated with excessive formation of gas in the colon and in the terminal small intestine. The most frequent cause the gases in excess, is abnormal increase of fermentation processes in these areas of the intestine. Gas accumulation, leading to distension pain, it is the greater, the more material (carbohydrates), capable of fermentation, is in the area of distribution of microbial fermentation and the wider area of penetration of these microbes from the distal small intestine towards proximal. These conditions have created a violation of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine when the latter reaches its terminal departments and contribute to the development of fermentation processes. Note that the mechanism of development of flatulence pain may be related to other causes, in particular with pathological relaxation of muscle tone and decrease peristalsis, which is observed in portal hypertension (liver cirrhosis), or paresis of the smooth muscle of the intestine and the corresponding extension of the intestinal tube, (flatulence immediately after the operation in the field of abdominal organs, toxic dilatation of the colon with ulcerative colitis). Finally, distantsionnye pain may have a pure functional Genesis (hysterical subjects). In these cases, they are the consequence of flatulence, which is developing in connection with the local bowel spasm, while relaxing the abdominal muscles.