Research methods rectum

Physical methods of research of the rectum simple, accessible in the outpatient setting and ensure proper recognition of the majority of its diseases.
External examination produce in the knee-elbow position when divorced buttocks, when natureway patient. Under these conditions it is possible to visit promezhnost-anal region and to identify a number of diseases: external hemorrhoids, fistula, loss of mucous membrane, prosauropoda polyps.
Digital feeling produced in the patient on the back with bent to the stomach feet in the knee-elbow position in position on the left side, and in some cases (for deeper palpation) in the squatting position with natureway the patient, which allows to detect highest location of the tumor and infiltrates.
Women are bedigital study by the introduction of the index finger in the vagina and medium into the rectum. This method enables to specify the size of the tumor and its relation to the uterus and the vagina.
As a rule, a rectal examination is painless.
Instrumental examination of the rectum directly to explore its walls, to identify and assess existing pathological changes of the mucous membrane, and if necessary to get the material for histological examination.
Using mirrors with a retractable branches (especially fenestrated) and well-directional lighting can explore the anal canal and niinianoao part of the intestine (anoscopy). This way you can identify fissures and fistulas, inflammation anal sinuses, hemorrhoids, tumors perineal the intestines. Cm. also a Rectal examination.
Rectoskopia - see Sigmoidoscopy.
A biopsy is the most evidence-based method of diagnostics of tumors of the rectum. The positive response of pathomorphology not only allows to state the diagnosis, but gives the opportunity to get known the idea about the structure of the tumor and partly on the degree of malignancy. In some cases, have to resort to re-biopsy. The biopsy results should be viewed with caution, bearing in mind the possibility of combination of benign process (polyp, ulcerative proctitis) with a malignant tumour. The biopsy material taken from the edges of the tumor with a small plot of healthy tissue, under the control of the eyes, through rectoscopes tube through the elongated conchotomy. A biopsy is contraindicated in penetrating ulcers, when thinned, inflammatory modified wall is at risk of perforation, when occasionally encountered hemangiomas, and also in case of melanoblastoma (threat of dissemination).
X-ray examination, see below.