Methods of examination of the mentally ill

The main method examination of the mentally ill - a conversation with them and questioning. However, essential for understanding the mental state of the patient may have and monitoring features of its appearance and General manners in the survey process. From the patient should not hide the fact that he says with a psychiatrist. A conversation with the patient a better lead in the absence of other persons If the patient is suspicious of the others and wary, initially with it better to start a conversation with a conversation on General topics and not to hurry with questions about his painful experiences. The physician should guide the conversation, to get the patient need answers and, if the latter distracted or multiword expressions, you need gently but insistently ask the patient to return to the main topic of conversation. It is important to get away from it not for General information about the disease, and a description of specific mental disorders, traumatic experiences. Originality of feelings and experiences, feel sick, should not call the doctor surprise or attempts to dissuade the patient to prove nieprawdopodobne his experiences. However, the physician should not agree and support the painful opinions or views of the patient. To clarify the peculiarities of development of disease in psychiatric patients, their mental state at some stage of the disease, you can use information from relatives, neighbors, co-workers, medical documentation, if available.
Mentally ill need special to them approach. In dealing with them one cannot demonstrate suspicion and jealousy; you need to exclude anything that could highlight their mental disability. Doctors and other health professionals in interviews with the mentally ill, his relatives, and especially with co-workers, neighbors at the place of residence and other persons should be very careful. It should refrain from categorical judgments about diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. It is known that the predictions about the future development of mental disorders, especially in some specific cases, are challenging, not to mention the fact that it is often difficult itself and diagnosis of the disease; it relates to the early stages of its development. In addition, single-sided and often distorted understanding of the one disease or another non-specialists make erroneous conclusions about its manifestations and outcomes. Such representations can be a source of false assessment of the legal status of the patient and the wrong attitude.
Help conclusion on mental health and other documents should be issued in strict accordance with the established regulations.
When assessing the condition of the patient at present and forecast disease must consider the General regularities inherent in the clinical picture of this mental illness. These patterns are manifested in a specific sequence, the development of mental disorders and that the nature of the violations reflects the depth of disorders of brain activity of the patient.
In addition to the study of a clinical picture of mental illness, apply other methods of examination: psychological, neurological, electroencephalography, biochemical, serological follow-up. Psychological research in experimental conditions using different tests and methods allow you to specify important diagnostic features and degree of disturbance of cognitive activity of the patient, his memory, learning and other mental functions. The cause of many diseases has not yet been clarified, and the clinical picture of the individual mentally ill can be a lot in common, and therefore the presence or absence of certain neurological symptoms often helps to establish the correct diagnosis.
By electroencephalography found out very subtle signs of organic disease of Central nervous system. Other laboratory studies of the mentally ill (biochemical, serological, x-ray, etc) are conducted for diagnostic purposes and to determine the possibilities of applying a particular type of therapy. Laboratory researches allow to fully determine the condition of the patient, sometimes to clarify the nature of mental disorders, but of crucial importance in the diagnosis of mental illness belongs to the clinical picture.
Important for the characteristic features of the disease and possible effects have a follow-up study. Catamnesis - information about the status of patients after various time after discharge from the hospital, recent surveys or any treatment. Follow-up information drawn from a variety of sources, including data belong special surveys conducted by doctors or nursing staff, extracts from medical records of the patients ' condition, if they are under dynamic observation; oral or written answers patients on the proposed issues (questionnaires).
Follow-up studies give a more complete and correct information about the dynamics and outcomes of mental disorders, especially those that show a tendency to chronic course. The data follow-up studies are often valuable and necessary addition to the clinical observations to Refine the diagnosis and definition of efficiency of the applied therapy. With the help of follow-up monitoring possible to solve many important scientific and practical tasks.
The system of psychiatric care in our country, providing dynamic monitor the mentally ill, has all the prerequisites for conducting follow-up studies on a large scale. When analyzing the results of the follow-up survey attempts to establish a causal relationship between individual factors (related to the individual needs of patients, their environment, held treatment) and the peculiarities of the mental condition of patients at the time of the survey. Such efforts are essential for more accurate prognosis of the disease and the development of effective treatment and preventive measures. However, the conclusions of pathogenic or the favorable impact of various factors on the course and outcome of the disease should be made with great caution. In order to decide how these factors, including therapy, affect the condition of patients, it is necessary to have precise information about the disease and prognosis. Meanwhile, in the present knowledge about the dynamics and prognosis of many mental illnesses are still insufficient and poorly differentiated; there are great difficulties in the determination of the forecast in relation to the particular clinical observations.
Also possible is another way a scientific assessment of the impact on the condition of patients of different factors identified during the follow-up surveys. For this purpose during the follow-up study, apart from the main group of patients, it is necessary to have and control. The main group of patients should be completely similar to the control and differ from it only by the presence of one or several factors, which can influence on the characteristics of the patients. Under such conditions of lots and lots of various factors, the effect of which was subjected or exposed to the patient, can be allocated directly responsible for certain features of his condition at the time of the follow-up survey. The significance of such factors should be evaluated statistically.