Microclimate

Climate climatic conditions created in a limited space artificially or due to natural features. The indoor microclimate is created artificially in order to provide the most favorable conditions for the people and protect them from adverse climatic influences (see comfort Zone). With this purpose, taking into account the climatic conditions of the area calculated heat loss of the premises and the calculation of heating (see) and ventilation (see). Of great importance heat-shielding properties of the outer fence of the premises: regardless of weather conditions during normal fuel consumption, temperature, humidity and air speed must be maintained at a certain level. Temperature fluctuations during the day should not exceed 2-3° in Central heating and 4-6'c during furnace. The air temperature in the premises must be uniform: the fluctuations in its horizontal shall not exceed 2-3 degrees in the vertical 1 degree for every meter of the height of the room. External protection facilities should have sufficient heat resistance, so that the temperature difference between their inner surfaces and the air does not exceed the allowed value.
If you increase this difference increases heat loss of the human body, there is a sense zabkosti and possible colds. It is also possible to condensation of water vapor on the cooled surfaces, that is the cause of the dampness. The admissible values of a difference of temperatures of the air space and the inner surface of fencings depend on humidity and norms for various premises. So, for the exterior walls of residential buildings this difference should not exceed 3 degrees, for industrial premises is 8-12 degrees, attic floors of residential buildings -4,5°, public buildings of 5.5 degrees.
The microclimate of premises - see Housing.
The microclimate of industrial premises is determined by the purpose of the premises and the nature of the technological process. For the normalization conditions of work carried out several activities: heating and ventilation of industrial premises, mechanization of the production process, heat insulation of hot surfaces, the protection of workers from radiation sources and so on
Meteorological conditions of the production areas are regulated CH 245-71 (Sanitary norms of planning industrial enterprises).
Microclimate hospitals should ensure the conditions for thermal comfort for the sick. Special microclimatic conditions desirable in operating theatres, wards for newborns, for patients with allergic reaction. In these premises it is expedient air conditioning, radiant heating equipment. Air temperatures in the chambers for adults, medical offices, mess rooms 20 degrees, wards for children 22-25°, operating and maternity 25 degrees.
The microclimate of premises for children standardized depending on the type of institutions, the children's age, heating systems, climatic conditions of the area and children's clothing, as well as the destination space. The air temperature in the premises for newborns is accepted 23-26°, child up to 1 year 21 - 22nd, for children under 2-3 years 19-20°, in shared rooms nursery 20 degrees, in rooms for games 16th, potted 22nd, umyvalnoj and lavatory 20 degrees.
Microclimate pagodinho space is determined by the properties of tissues service. Heat capacity of service must comply with the conditions socks and contribute to the preservation of thermal equilibrium of the body. The state of thermal equilibrium of the human body is kept at the temperature of air pagodinho space 28-32 degrees and relative humidity in the range of 20 - 40%. Apparel fabrics need to provide the airflow to the content of carbon dioxide in the air pagodinho space is not exceeded 0.08% (see Clothes).
The microclimate of cities. In cities in the hot season heated by the sun stone building and asphalt streets are an additional source of heat; because of air pollution by smoke in the cities decreases the intensity of solar radiation falling sharply biologically important ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, preventive sanitary supervision over construction of particularly important hygienic value questions correct use of terrain, distribution on the territory of the city green areas, the correct orientation for housing construction, natural lighting and ventilation of the streets, the appropriate choice of material to cover the streets and so on (see the Layout of settlements).

The climate - meteorological regime of closed premises (houses, medical institutions, industrial plants). In addition, there are microclimate of settlements and the microclimate of working area at works on an open territory. The climate is determined by the following meteorological components - the temperature of the air and surrounding surfaces, humidity and air speed and radiant energy. The microclimate of premises for various purposes, although the fence, changes in accordance with the state of the external atmospheric conditions and therefore is subject to fluctuations seasonal nature.
Heat exchange of a person is determined by the relationships between education and heat efficiency or receiving heat from the environment. The study of heat transfer of a person in various conditions Meters in all its diversity and versatility enables you to develop norms M, to determine the degree of adaptation of organisms and to develop protection against excessive exposure to heat, cold and radiant energy (see Thermoregulation).
Sanitary norms of microclimate developed on the basis of modern data physiology of heat exchange and thermoregulation of the person, and also achievements of sanitary engineering. Sanitary norms M for different objects are often designed for cold and warm periods of the year, and in some cases and climatic zones (see Climate). Sanitary norms are divided into optimal (often called thermal comfort) and permissible.
The optimal rate (see Area of thermal comfort) are used for objects with high requirements of thermal comfort (theatres, clubs, hospitals, sanatoriums, children's institutions). In a number of industries for hygienic and technological requirements are also necessary optimal conditions Meters (electronic equipment, precision instrument-making).
Permissible norms provide human performance at a certain voltage, temperature regulation, not beyond the physiological changes. These standards are used in those cases when for various reasons level
modern technology is still not optimal norms.
The microclimate of settlements (cities, villages, settlements, and so on) is different from the climatic conditions of the surrounding area. The different buildings heated by the sun, high buildings and streets are changing wind power; green trees provide shade and reduce the temperature. Therefore, the climate of this or that area has a large hygienic importance for the planning of towns and settlements, as well as for designing various systems of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning.


The microclimate of dwellings. Area of thermal comfort for dwellings is defined as the set of conditions under which the thermoregulatory function of the organism is in state of the least stress and physiological functions of the organism are carried out at the level that is most favourable for rest and rejuvenation of the organism after previous workload (see Hermitage).
Heating of dwellings on the existing construction norms and regulations should ensure that the temperature of the air: for living rooms, corridors and front - 18 degree, kitchens - 15 degrees, showers and baths - 25oC, stairs and toilets - 16 degrees. Recently recommended for living rooms temperature 18-22°, the relative humidity is 40 - 60%. The temperature of the inner surface of the walls should not be lower than the temperature of the air in the room more than 5 degrees. In the summer in the southern regions of the country must be protected dwellings 1 excessive insolation by planting and watering of the adjoining areas, through airing, the use of shutters and blinds. In addition, in the southern regions, in some cases, can be implemented the system of radiation cooling (using a wall or ceiling panels with lower temperature than the temperature of the air and the air conditioning system. For the summer period it is recommended that the air temperature is 23 - 25 Celsius, relative humidity 40-60% and the speed of air movement 0.3 m/s.
The microclimate of industrial premises in most cases is determined by the technological process. Production microclimate can be divided into: 1) "heating" predominantly convection heat; 2) "radiation" from the preferential allocation of radiant heat; 3) "wet" with the release of large amounts of moisture; 4) "cooling" in the presence of low temperature and fencing.
The microclimate of industrial facilities must comply with the Sanitary norms of planning industrial enterprises (SN 245-63), which made up for summer and winter periods. Optimal rates for a winter period of year: air temperature - from 14-21°, relative humidity 40-60%, the speed of air movement is not more than 0.3 m/s; the permissible norm - from 24 to 13 degrees, the humidity not higher than 75%, the speed of movement of air no more than 0.5 m/sec. The optimal rate for the summer period: air temperature-25-17 degrees, the humidity is 40-60%, the speed of air movement is not more than 0.3 m/s; in permissible norms upper limit temperature is 28 degrees Celsius, humidity - not more than 55%, the speed of air flow is 0,5-1,5 m/sec. The temperature of the heated surfaces of equipment and barriers at the workplace should not exceed 45 degrees.
There are also studying the climate pagodinho space, which largely determines the thermal state of a human organism. Clothes creates person adjustable Feet, providing thermal comfort. This M differs from the climate of the external environment and is characterized by relatively small changes of temperature, humidity and air movement. The condition of the thermal comfort of the person corresponds to the temperature under clothing 29-32 degrees and relative humidity of 40-60% (at a sedentary air).