Trace elements

Minerals - chemical elements included in the composition of organisms in very small quantities and is necessary for normal vital activity.
Minerals are part of enzymes, hormones, vitamins and other biologically important substances directly involved in intermediate metabolism by influencing the basic functions of the organism (the development, growth, reproduction, blood and others). Trace elements enter the body of humans and animals with food and drinking water.
The following are examples of pathological phenomena observed in the body with a lack of micronutrients.

Name Chemical sign Signs of deficiency of microelements in the organism
Cobalt
Manganese
Copper
Zinc
Iodine
With
Mn
Si
Zn
I
Anemia, weight loss
Sterility, impaired bone formation
Thalassemia, disorder of iron metabolism
The growth disorders, hair loss
Endemic goiter
Cm. Mineral substances (in power).

Minerals - chemical elements typically contained in the organism in small quantities (usually in thousandths and smaller fractions of a percent, but sometimes in large quantities - in the hundreds and even in tenths of a percent). The elements contained in quantities smaller millionths of a percentage, called ultralegendary. In the composition of animal organisms openly 55 trace elements comprising a total of about 0,4-0,6% of live weight organisms.
Currently, microelements and ultralente on knowledge of their meaning for mammals can be divided into three groups (table. 2). Microelements group I constantly found in animal organisms; clarified many aspects of their physiological activity and some biochemical mechanisms; they are part of biologically active compounds and are in some cases indispensable. Microelements group II also constantly kept in animals, but the form of compounds, physiological and biochemical role of several Meters this group little studied (IIA) or unknown (II6). Group III is assigned M. detected in animal organisms, for which quantitative content, as well as biological role has not been studied. In the blood of mammals and humans constantly found 24 trace elements, including copper (100 - 120 mcg%), manganese (12-15 mcg%), cobalt (3-7 mcg%), molybdenum (approximately 1 mg%), uranium (1-2 ug% of whole blood). In human milk openly 30 trace elements, including copper (40-61 mcg%), zinc (140-210 mcg%), cobalt (1-4 mcg%).
Some organs and tissues concentrate minerals, forming their depots, which in some cases is ensured by the regulation of distribution of microelements in the organism (table. 1). The majority of microelements are included in the composition of organic compounds and often causes their high chemical and biological activity (for example, metal compounds with proteins, many enzymes, respiratory pigments, some hormones and vitamins). Organic compounds M. involved in intermediate metabolism by influencing the basic functions of the organism (development, growth, reproduction, hematopoiesis). A lack or excess of certain Meters in food (cobalt, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum, Nickel, strontium, lead, iodine, fluorine, selenium) leads to disturbance of metabolism and the emergence of endemic diseases of humans and animals. Biogeochemical zoning must serve one of the foundations of regional medicine.
In the schematic map of the biogeochemical zoning (printing. PL.) shows the following biogeochemical zone and zone of the province (in which are combined the characteristics of the zones on concentrations and ratios of chemical elements).

schematic map of biogeochemical zoning of the USSR
Schematic map of biogeochemical zoning of the USSR. (Was Centuries Kovalsky.) Zone: 1 - the taiga-forest non-Chernozem; 2 - forest-steppe and steppe chernozems; 3 - dry-steppe, desert and semi-desert; 4 - mountain; zonal biogeochemical province: 5-enriched Sr, poor Sa; 6 - poor Cu, rich Mo and sulphites; 7 - rich; 8 - J poor and With; azonic biogeochemical and (some mountain) province: 9 - rich With; 10 - rich Cu; 11 - rich Mo; 12 - rich Ni; 13 - rich Pb; 14 - rich F; 15 - rich CA and Sr; 16 - rich Se.


A. Taiga-forest non-Chernozem zone. Biological reactions of organisms are determined by lack of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, cobalt, copper, iodine, boron; income manganese and zinc, the relative abundance of strontium; soils are acidic. Across the common area of the province: 1) poor cobalt (in tissues and milk of animals reduced the content of cobalt and vitamin B12; endemic - ekobaltas, Hypo - and avitaminosis B12 among the sheep, rarely cattle, rarely horses and pigs); 2) poor copper (impaired synthesis of oxidative enzymes; gemosideros; endemic anemia in sheep, cattle, less frequently, other domestic animals); 3) poor iodine (violation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones; endemic enlargement of the thyroid gland, endemic goiter among all species of domestic animals and people); 4) poor in calcium and phosphorus (disturbed metabolism in the bone tissue; endemic diseases of bones and joints, most often in young animals); 5) poor copper and cobalt (often on peat soils) (impaired synthesis of vitamin B12 and oxidative enzymes; endemic ekobaltas, complicated by the lack of copper Hypo - and avitaminosis B12 sheep and cattle); 6) poor with iodine and cobalt (in districts of the Yaroslavl oblast, Mari ASSR and other) (violation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones is amplified by the lack of cobalt; suffer all kinds of animals and persons); 7) enriched with strontium, poor in calcium (in the districts of the Chita and Amur region) (endemic violation of bone formation; uravska disease in animals and humans).
B. forest-steppe and steppe Chernozem zone. Biological reactions are determined by the abundance of calcium, cobalt, copper, iodine, sometimes a lack of potassium, manganese, often phosphorus. Soil neutral, slightly alkaline. Biological reactions, typical for other areas not commonly found. Endemic enlargement of the thyroid gland and goiter found in animals on gray forest soils, in floodplains and on leached Chernozem.
C. the Dry steppe, desert and semi-desert zone. Biological reactions are determined by the increased content of sulphates, often boron, sometimes molybdenum, a deficiency of copper, manganese, in some cases, an excess of nitrates. The neutral and alkaline soils. Common provinces: 1) poor copper rich in sulphates and molybdenum (Terek districts Sulak lowland, Uzbekistan, Kulunda steppe) (reduced activity of sulfadoxine liver and oxidative enzymes Central nervous system demyelination in the Central nervous system; impaired coordination of movements, convulsions, paralysis, enzootic ataxia, paraplegia in lambs, less often at goats, calves); 2) rich in boron (Caspian lowland, Kulunda steppe) (reduced activity of amylase and partially proteases digestive tract; violated the allocation of boron kidneys; endemic enteritis, often pneumonia in sheep, camels, person); 3) rich in nitrates (deserts of Central Asia) (endemic nitrate).
, In Mountain zones. Biological reactions varied and are defined variable concentration and ratio of many chemical elements. Spread the province with the lack of iodine, cobalt and other elements; endemic enlargement of the thyroid gland, goiter, Hypo - and avitaminosis B12 in different species of animals and humans.
Conventional signs marked azonic biogeochemical provinces (signs which do not correspond to the characteristic zones) and some mountainous provinces: 1) rich in cobalt (some regions of Azerbaijan) (enhanced synthesis of vitamin B12); 2) rich in copper (region of Bashkiria) (endemic anemia, accompanied by degeneration of the liver in sheep); 3) rich in molybdenum (Ankarska province in Armenia) (increased synthesis of xanthine oxidase; increased concentration of uric acid in the blood and urine; endemic molybdenum gout in humans, molybdenum toxicity in animals; 4) rich Nickel (districts of Aktobe region) (deposition Nickel in epidermal tissues, especially in the cornea of the eye; endemic diseases of the eye in lambs and calves); 5) rich in lead (Atkascha and Atalissa province in Armenia) (enrichment lead of humans and animals; endemic nervous diseases - cephalgia, myalgia, and others); 6) rich in fluorine (broken ossification; there deformation of the bones, the narrowing of the cavity of the bone marrow channel; endemic fluorosis in animals and humans; 7) rich in calcium and strontium (Tajik SSR) (increased activity phosphatase, increased levels of strontium in epiphysial cartilage and bone; endemic chondrodystrophy, rarity); 8) selenium-rich (the districts of Tuva ASSR) (enhanced content of selenium in animal tissues; endemic violations of keratinozitov and anemia; possible enteritis, hepatitis, principally in sheep, and possibly in other species of animals); 9) poor fluorine (reduced content of fluorine in the enamel and dentine; endemic dental caries in animals and humans); 10) poor manganese (reduced activity phosphatase, phosphorylase, solimano of dehydrase; endemic perosis in birds).
Various geochemical zones are characterized by a different content of microelements in soils, plant foods and drinking waters. There is a necessity of regulation of trace elements in food rations humans and domestic animals as one of the important tasks food hygiene, may serve as the basis for the prevention of endemic violations of metabolism and endemic diseases. From this point of view is of great importance, determining the need for trace elements in human and animal, content regulation M in treatment and food rations in the modern clinic medical nutrition. Cm. Mineral substances (in power).