Microbial flora of the person

Microbial flora of the human population of micro-organisms found in healthy people on the skin, mucous membranes, and intestines.
The nature of the microbial flora of man is largely determined by its localization. Quantitative and qualitative composition of the microbial flora of the person depends also on the age, sex, state of the organism, etc.
The microflora of the skin presents different types of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Suriname, diphtheroids.
Flora in the nasopharynx, usually constant for a long time. Its membership may include pathogenic species: pneumococcus, hemolytic Streptococcus, meningococcal disease.
The microflora of an oral cavity are micrococci, streptococci, enterococci, pneumococci, lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus, diphtheroids, Leptospira, spirilli. In different places of the mouth number of different bacteria. Microflora changes depending on the condition of the gums, teeth, tonsils, nose and nasopharynx.
Flora of the stomach at its normal function presents a relatively small number of bacteria: the vast majority of them dies under the action of hydrochloric acid gastric juice. The exception is acid resistant and sporogony bacteria. At decrease gastric acidity may develop sarcini, yeast and other
Microflora of the small intestine consists mainly of enterococci. In addition, it can meet the lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, sarcini and yeast.
Microflora of the large intestine is an important physiological value. It includes the so-called normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (Escherichia coli; Bact. and Streptococcus lactis ovalis), and a number of accidental species of microbes that get From food. In addition, in the gut can inhabit different kinds of clostridia and other anaerobic asparagine bacteria, Proteus, sporogony aerobes, sometimes spirochaete, yeast, faecal Streptococcus.
Microflora of the vagina is changed three times. The newborns are present only many lactobacilli of Doderlein. Then for about 10 years in the discharge of the vagina almost bacteria is not found (sometimes trivial anaerobes). With the onset of puberty multiply in a large number of lactobacilli of Doederlein, sometimes different cocci and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
The microflora of the front part of the urethra in men are staphylococci, diphtheroids, and gram-negative pathogenic diplomaticly.
Microbial flora person has a physiological value. Microorganisms take part in the digestion of food in the intestine, are a source of vitamins (E. coli, for example, produces large amounts of vitamin K2, required for the synthesis of prothrombin in the body). Representatives of the normal microflora are antagonists, can inhibit the growth of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans. In the composition of the microbial flora person there are certain types of microorganisms that can have a beneficial effect on the body. Under certain conditions (hypothermia, the weakening of the organism as a result of disease, hunger, and so on) microbial flora person can contribute to a number of diseases - pneumonia, influenza patients, stomatitis, cystitis and even sepsis.

Microbial flora of the person - a set of microorganisms inhabiting the skin and mucous membranes of humans and does not affect them visible harmful actions. Microbial flora of a person consists of micro-organisms in the environment, and from this (autochthonous) microflora, i.e. microorganisms, symbiotic associated with the appropriate host.
The microflora of the skin is composed of a relatively small number of species of bacteria, the number and species composition of which varies depending on the area of skin, observance of rules of personal hygiene, sanitary conditions of life and work. The main representatives of the skin microflora of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus pyogenes vax. aureus. Other types of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, sarcini, Proteus and diphtheroids there are only temporarily or accidentally. The presence of Staphylococcus on the skin explained by the fact that they are located in the nose and nasopharynx, where are distributed over the entire surface of the body. Often, these types of bacteria found on the skin of the perineum, mainly in the apocrine glands; it is not associated with contamination (pollution, contamination) Pooh, as staphylococci skin and bowel movements may belong to different phagotypes. Species composition and number of bacteria in different parts of the skin varies in wide range and change considerably closer to the natural outputs of the mucous membranes (around the anus, vagina, nose, external ear holes).
Microflora of an oral cavity in healthy people depends on the degree of purification of the oral cavity from the remnants of food, fragments of epithelial cells, mucus, etc. serving a nutrient medium for many bacteria. In the mouth found micrococci, including anaerobic Veillonella species, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus, Staphylococcus, α-, b -, and V-streptococci, enterococci, pneumococci, different types of Neisseria, Haemophilus, lactic acid bacteria, gram-negative germs group of Escherichia coli and Proteus, anaerobic asparagine bacteria of Bacteroides genus, different diphtheroids, and lindifferon sticks, spindle-shaped sticks, Borrelia burgdorferi (Century vincentii, Century buccalis and others), Treponema (So macrodentium, So microdentium), Leptospira (L. dentium), vibrios (V. buccalis) and spirally (S. sputigenum), and various types Leptothrix, Nocardia, Streptomyces, yeast (mainly Candida and ascospores yeast) and, finally, the simplest (Entamoeba buccalis, E. dentalis). Many adults healthy people are also pleuropneumoniae microorganisms and II-hemolytic streptococci, forming under cultivation L-shaped colonies. The best conditions for the development of microorganisms, especially anaerobov, in the mouth are created in adults in sacks gums around the teeth, and the children - in the field of tonsils.
In norm in the stomach (at pH gastric juice of about 2,0) found a small number of acid-fast and sporogony bacteria. By reducing acidity juice and slowing gastric emptying may develop sarcini, yeast and other saprophytes. Microflora content of thin intestines consists almost exclusively of enterococci, well carry relatively acid reaction (pH 6,2) of this section of the intestines. There are also lactic acid bacteria; they form lactic acid that plays a role in the suppression of the propagation of Escherichia coli. In lower parts of the small intestine meet gram-negative microbes group of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, sarcini and yeast. The main inhabitants of the large intestine - Escherichia coli commune, Bact. lactis aerogenes, Streptococcus ovalis, and infants - Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bifidus; you can find different kinds of clostridia, anaerobic asparagine bacteria, giant cocci, Proteus, Pseudomonas and sporogony aerobic rods.


On the surface epithelium of the nasal cavity is relatively little bacteria, apparently because of the antibacterial properties of the secret of the mucous membrane of the nose. In the anterior part of the nasal cavity is found mainly Staphylococcus and various diphtheroids. Near the nasopharynx, in particular, often non-haemolytic and viridans streptococci, gram-negative cocci group Neisseria etc. and sometimes other opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria (pnevmokocchi, hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae), and some representatives of microflora of an oral cavity. The presence in the nasal mucus healthy people, especially medical personnel, antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococci plays a significant role in occurrence of nosocomial infections (see).
In microflora of the vagina healthy women predominate gram-positive bacilli of Doederlein, usually together with a small number of different anaerobov. Yeast microorganisms and protozoa of the genus Trichomonas not apply to normal microflora of the vagina. The presence of them in waginalnom secret shows the development of candidiasis or trichomoniasis.
In girls during the first three weeks of life, when their bodies are full of estrogenic hormones maternal origin in microflora of the vagina are present only numerous bacteria Doederlein, come from the mother during childbirth. With the disappearance of the child's body hormones, mother, vaginal secret found only some banal anaerobes (except when caused toilet after a chair or climbing pinworms cause contamination of the vagina intestinal bacteria). With the onset of puberty because of estrogenization own hormones appears typical of adult women microflora.
In the front part of the urethra in men find individual staphylococci, diphtheroids, and gram-negative pathogenic diplomaticly; in urine is possible to find single acid Bacillus species of Mycobacterium smegmatis-normal saprophytes sebaceous glands of the penis head. The urethra in women sterile or may contain a small amount of non-pathogenic kokkov.